DANMAP 98--consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark.
DANMAP 2001--consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark.
DANMAP 99--consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from food animals, food and humans in Denmark.
increasing ciprofloxacin use Sector Type of Intervention intervention had effect Food Regulatory Yes animal Regulatory Yes Regulatory Yes Guideline Not yet known Food Regulatory Not yet known Human Awareness Yes campaign Awareness No, use of newer, campaign broad-spectrum antibiotics still increasing Awareness Not yet known campaign Mandatory Not yet known notification Awareness No, antibiotic use campaign still increasing Awareness No, ciprofloxacin campaign use and resistance still increasing, but low compared with that of other countries * DANMAP, Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program, EU, European Union.
Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries.
DANMAP has 4 objectives: 1) monitor the consumption of antimicrobial agents for food animals and humans; 2) monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial agent resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals, food of animal origin, and humans; 3) study associations between antimicrobial agent consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance; and 4) identify routes of transmission and areas for further research.
The first results covering all 3 reservoirs from DANMAP were published in 1997 (11); annual reports have subsequently been published (www.
DANMAP collects and presents data on consumption of antimicrobial agents and the occurrence of resistance in indicator bacteria, zoonotic bacteria, and pathogenic bacteria from animals, food, and humans.
DANMAP measured and documented the effect of this marked change in antimicrobial consumption in animal production.
To avoid bias in the selection of the isolates, the VREF isolates included in DANMAP were detected by using a nonselective isolation method.
These data were used in the first DANMAP reports (1996-2000).
In the DANMAP 2000 report, higher levels of resistance in travel-associated Salmonella and Campylobacter infections were reported for the first time (29).