In the present investigation, we exposed hiPSC-derived DA neurons to low concentrations of ropinirole and pramipexole, allowing the higher affinity for D3R to exert a preferential role versus D2R ; we likewise showed blockade of ropinirole- and pramipexole-induced structural plasticity by preincubation with the highly selective D3R antagonists SB277011-A and S33084.
There are two classes of antipsychotics: typical (older) agents basically act via dopamine [D.sub.2] receptor (D2R) antagonism, and atypical (newer) agents generally act through various receptors (including [5HT.sub.2A], [5HT.sub.1A], [5HT.sub.2B] and [D.sub.3]) (Meltzer 2013).
The second route inhibits the pathway activated by D2R dopamine receptor, stimulating PRL production and proliferation of lactotrophic cells by increasing cAMP ending in PKA phosphorylation pathways that trigger PRL gene expression  (Figure 7).
In this review we summarize data on angiogenesis in human pituitary adenomas, as well as in two mouse models of dopamine agonist resistant prolactinomas: the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) knockout mouse ([Drd2.sup.-/-])  and the lactotrope specific D2R knockout mouse (lacD2RKO) generated by Cre LoxP technology .
Renal locally formed dopamine is a major regulator of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption and exerts its physiological actions through two different receptors located at the tubular cell surface: D1 receptor subtype (D1R, a member of the D1-like receptor family together with D5R) and D2 receptor subtype (D2R, a member of the D2-like receptor as well as D3R and D4R) [118-121].