The suite of VOCs reported here are compounds with long-term health risks and include a) those that are primarily from indoor sources (e.g., chloroform, p-dichlorobenzene, d-limonene
, [alpha]- and [beta]-pinene), b) those that have indoor and outdoor sources (e.g., benzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, toluene, tetrachloroethylene, m/ pand o-xylene), and c) those that originate mainly from outdoor air (e.g., carbon tetrachloride).
Uedo N, Tatsuta M, Iishi H, Baba M, Sakai N, Yano H, Otani T (1999) Inhibition of d-limonene
of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.
(35) reported that aerosol products accounted for 22% of the reacted d-limonene
in their ozone/d-limonene experiments, suggesting that these aerosols contained a number of low volatility [C.sub.9] and [C.sub.10] polyfunctional oxygenated products.
Safety evaluation and risk assessment of d-limonene
. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev.
induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial death pathway and
In contrast, [beta]-myrcene compounds, D-limonene
, [beta]-ocimene, [gamma]-elemene, [beta]-citral and geraniol were collected in higher concentration in symptomatic than in asymptomatic shoots of the same lemon tree species.
The principal volatile compounds from French marigold were 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (25.90%), D-limonene
(16.73%), terpinolene (14.82%), 1-methy-l-4-(1-methylethenyl)-benzene (7.76%), hexanal (4.76%), p-isopropyltoluene (3.59%), ocimene (3.40%), and a-pinene (2.18%) (Table S1; Fig.
In this work, we used fish gelatin and water-soluble chitosan as the matrix materials and D-limonene
as an antibacterial agent to prepare the antibacterial edible films.
Authentic standards of linalool, (E)-linalool oxide A (furanoid), (Z)-linalool oxide B (furanoid), (E)-linalool oxide C (pyranoid), geraniol, citral, [beta]-myrcene, D-limonene
, [beta]-ocimene, nerol, nerolidol, [beta]-ionone, geranyl acetone, naphthalene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, eugenol, nonanal, benzyl alcohol, benzene acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (Z)-3-hexenol acetate, 3-octen-1-ol, indole, and ethyl decanoate were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich (Shanghai, China).
heptaphyllum exhibit biological activities, as p-cymene presents anti-inflammatory property , D-limonene
presents antihyperalgesic action , and a-terpineol induces gastric protection .
In addition, DSS (36-50 kDa) (MP Biochemicals, USA), d-limonene
(purity [greater than or equal to] 98%), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and dexamethasone (Dex) (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) were also used in this study.