d-glucose


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.
Related to d-glucose: fructose, D-ribose

dextrose (d-glucose)

BD Glucose, Glutose, Insta-Glucose

Pharmacologic class: Monosaccharide

Therapeutic class: Carbohydrate caloric nutritional supplement

Pregnancy risk category C

Action

Prevents protein and nitrogen loss; promotes glycogen deposition and ketone accumulation (through osmotic diuretic action)

Availability

Injection: 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 25%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%

Oral gel: 40%

Tablets (chewable): 5 g

Indications and dosages

Insulin-dependent hypoglycemia

Adults and children: Initially, 10 to 20 g P.O., repeated in 10 to 20 minutes if needed based on blood glucose level; or 20 to 50 ml by I.V. infusion or injection of 50% solution given at 3 ml/minute. Maintenance dosage is 10% to 15% solution by continuous I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range.

Infants and neonates: 2 ml/kg of 10% to 25% solution by slow I.V. infusion until blood glucose level reaches therapeutic range

Calorie replacement

Adults and children: 2.5%, 5%, or 10% solution given through peripheral I.V. line, with dosage tailored to patient's need for fluid or calories; or 10% to 70% solution given through large central vein if needed (typically mixed with amino acids or other solution)

Off-label uses

• Varicose veins

• Insulin-secreting islet-cell adenoma

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug

• Hyperglycemia, diabetic coma

• Hemorrhage

• Heart failure

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal, cardiac, or hepatic impairment; diabetes mellitus.

Administration

• Use aseptic technique when preparing solution. Bacteria thrive in high-glucose environments.

Infuse concentrations above 10% through central vein.

• Don't infuse concentrated solution rapidly, because doing so may cause hyperglycemia and fluid shifts.

Never stop infusion abruptly.

Adverse reactions

CNS: confusion, loss of consciousness

CV: hypertension, phlebitis, venous thrombosis, heart failure

GU: glycosuria, osmotic diuresis

Metabolic: hyperglycemia, hypervolemia, hypovolemia, electrolyte imbalances, hyperosmolar coma

Respiratory: pulmonary edema

Skin: flushing, urticaria

Other: chills, fever, dehydration, injection site reaction, infection

Interactions

Drug-drug. Corticosteroids, corticotropin: increased risk of fluid and electrolyte imbalances

Drug-diagnostic tests. Glucose: increased level

Patient monitoring

Monitor infusion site frequently to prevent irritation, tissue sloughing, necrosis, and phlebitis.

• Check blood glucose level at regular intervals.

• Monitor fluid intake and output.

• Weigh patient regularly.

• Assess patient for confusion.

Patient teaching

• Teach patient how to recognize signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia.

• Provide instructions on glucose self-monitoring.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and tests mentioned above.

d-glu·cose (G, Glc),

(glū'kōs),
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70-110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose.
Synonym(s): cellohexose

glu·cose

(glū'kōs)
A dextrorotatory monosaccharide found in a free form in fruits and other parts of plants, and in combination in glucosides, glycogen, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starch cellulose); the chief source of energy in human metabolism, the final product of carbohydrate digestion, and the principal sugar of the blood; insulin is required for the use of glucose by cells; in diabetes mellitus, the level of glucose in the blood is excessive, and it also appears in the urine.
Synonym(s): d-glucose.
References in periodicals archive ?
During hydrolysis, D-glucose content was determined with 30 min intervals by using the protocol of Wang (2018) based on the DNS method (Miller, 1959).
Acid hydrolysis and GC analysis led to the identification of D-glucose. Therefore, compound 3 was deduced as 6-methoxy-3-methyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid 8-O-[beta]-D-glucopyranoside.
The external solution contained: 110 mM CholineCl, 20 mM TEACl, 5 mM Ba[Cl.sub.2], 2.0 mM Mg[Cl.sub.2], 10 mM HEPES, and 20 mM D-glucose, adjusted to pH 7.4 with CsOH.
There are currently no viable fluorescent conjugates of D-glucose other than 2-NBDG; however, there are a variety of lipid droplet-selective stains.
It consists of a beta-(1,3)-D-glucan main chain with an occasional beta-(1,6)-bound D-glucose and exists predominantly as linear molecule with only approximately 5% occurring as triplex [35].
bEnd.3 cells were seeded onto 96-well plates at density of 5 x 104 cells/well and pretreated with D-glucose (25 mM), Let7A mimic or Let7A inhibitor.
In the present study, we report a different strategy to construct D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose cofermenting S.
It seemed that biosynthesis of chlorophyll in the cyanobacterial cells as a response of addition of carbon sources, D-glucose or molasses to the growth medium had variable effect.
The hippocampus was pre-perfused with ACSF (127 mmol [1.sup.-1] NaCl, 2.5 mmol [1.sup.-1] KCl, 1.3 mmol [1.sup.-1] [CaCl.sub.2], 0.9 mmol [1.sup.-1] [MgCl.sub.2], 1.2 mmol [1.sup.-1] [Na.sub.2]H[PO.sub.4], 21 mmol [1.sup.-1] [NaHCO.sub.3], 3.4 mmol [1.sup.-1] D-glucose, pH 7.3) at 4.0 [micro]l/min for 140 min to stabilize the region; perfused for 25 min in the same manner to determine the basal concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular fluid; and perfused with 100 mmol [1.sup.-1] KCl for 5 min to determine the change in extracellular glutamate concentration induced by neuronal depolarization.
The purity of the cultures used in the experiments was verified by confirming the presence of a single morphology through microscopic observation (Eclipse 50i; Nikon) of the growth of the microorganism in BM supplemented with 2 [g.l.sup.-1] YE and 20 mM D-glucose. The range of pH and the temperature in which the strain USBA-018 grew, were evaluated in BM supplemented with 2 [g.l.sup.-1] YE and 20 mM D-glucose.
G[O.sub.x] is a naturally occurring enzyme that has a high specificity toward D-glucose, the dextrose form of glucose.