Cognitive enhancers as adjuncts to psychotherapy: use of D-cycloserine
in phobic individuals to facilitate extinction of fear.
in schizophrenia: new strategies for improving clinical outcomes by enhancing plasticity," Current Neuropharmacology, vol.
Of 50 MDR-TB isolates, 18 (18/50, 36%) showed resistance to ethionamide (ET), 13 (13/50, 26%) to d-cycloserine
(DC), 11 (11/50, 22%) to ciprofloxacin (CP), 7 (7/50, 14%) to kanamycin (KA), 6 (6/50, 12%) to p-aminosalicylic acid (PA), and 5 (5/50, 10%) to amikacin (AM).
Urbano and her colleagues conducted a 10-week uncontrolled, randomized, double-blind trial comparing D-cycloserine
once daily at 50 mg or once weekly at 50 mg for 8 weeks in 20 patients with ASD.
Facilitation of conditioned fear extinction by systemic administration or intra-amygdala infusions of D-cycloserine
as assessed with fear-potentiated startle in rats.
Pharmacological enhancers of extinction (systemic) Drug Action Preclinical d-cycloserine
partial NMDAr agonist methylene blue metabolic enhancer yohimbine noradrenergic a2r antagonist sulpiride dopamine D2r antagonist AM-404 cannabinoid reuptake inhibitor WIN 55,212-2 cannabinoid receptor agonist dexamethasone glucocorticoid receptor agonist PEPA AMPA receptor potentiator Clinical d-cycloserine
partial NMDAr agonist cortisol endogenous glucocorticoid Reference Preclinical Walker et al., 2002 (63) Gonzalez-Lima and Bruchey, 2004 (64) Cain et al., 2004 (65) Ponnusamy et al., 2005 (66) Chhatwal et al., 2005 (67) Pamplona et al., 2006 (68) Yang et al., 2006 (69) Zushida et al., 2007 (70) Clinical Ressler et al., 2004 (71) Soravia et al., 2006 (72) Table 2.
injections to other brain regions didn't help the rats.
Additional clinical proof of concept studies have demonstrated the potential benefits of D-cycloserine
in treating a variety of anxiety disorders including Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and OCD, amongst others.
Once field testing is complete, participants in the Iraq war veteran study will take D-cycloserine
(Seromycin), alprazolam (Xanax), or a placebo before each virtual reality exposure "to see how they do," Dr.
Further, the use of NMDAR glycine site agonists such as glycine, D-serine, or D-cycloserine
in clinical trials has demonstrated some efficacy in ameliorating the negative symptoms and cognitive disabilities in schizophrenics (Coyle and Tsai 2004a, 2004b).
Scientists believe D-cycloserine
, a drug used to treat TB, can cure many of our irrational fears.
The drug, D-cycloserine
, does not work on its own but in combination with conventional 'exposure therapy', the standard form of treatment for phobias which involves exposing people to whatever it is they are afraid of.