The clinical presentation of FHL includes primarily fever, hepatomegaly, and cytopenia, which are the results of functional degradation in cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
and natural killer (NK)-cells, activation of macrophages and T-lymphocytes, excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines, and hemophagocytosis (1-3).
It's not the levels of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
in human volunteers, nor levels of neutralizing antibodies; it's not all these fancy immunologic measurements.
(CTL) specific to cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigens decline significantly during the first 6 months following liver transplantation, a finding that may explain the increased vulnerability to CMV observed in this patient population.
For this reason, many researchers are trying to create vaccines that stimulate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
(CTLs), immune-system cells that kill virus-infected cells in the body.
The results also demonstrate the pharmacodynamic effect of modulating the appropriate genes associated with the interferon gamma pathway and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
, which are 2 of 3 biomarker components of the Alopecia Areata Disease Activity Index, or ALADIN, score.
Mucosal infection by intracellular pathogens results in the induction of cell-mediated immunity, as manifested by CD4-positive ([CD4.sup.+]) T helper-type 1 cells, as well as [CD8.sup.8] cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
. These responses are normally accompanied by the synthesis of secretory immunoglobulin A (S-IgA) antibodies, which provide an important first line of defense against invasion of deeper tissues by these pathogens.
Recently, her research group studied how TCDD affects a mouse's production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes
, which destroy cells infected with viral invaders.