cytomegalovirus retinitis


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Related to cytomegalovirus retinitis: Cytomegalovirus infection, Mycobacterium avium complex

retinitis

 [ret″ĭ-ni´tis]
inflammation of the retina.
retinitis circina´ta (circinate retinitis) circinate retinopathy.
cytomegalovirus retinitis opportunistic infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus, seen in immunocompromised patients; symptoms include retinal necrosis and hemorrhage, leading to blindness.
exudative retinitis exudative retinopathy.
retinitis pigmento´sa a group of diseases, frequently hereditary, marked by progressive loss of retinal response (as recorded by the electroretinograph), retinal atrophy, attenuation of retinal vessels, and clumping of the pigment, with contraction of the field of vision. It may be transmitted as a dominant, recessive, or X-linked trait and is sometimes associated with other genetic defects. It may become manifest at the age of two or three years, or it may follow a slow course over a period of years. There is no successful treatment or cure for the condition. Early diagnosis allows the patient to prepare for the eventual loss of vision.
retinitis proli´ferans a condition that may result from intraocular hemorrhage, with neovascularization and the formation of fibrous bands extending into the vitreous from the retina; retinal detachment may result.
suppurative retinitis retinitis due to pyemic infection.

cytomegalovirus retinitis

Ophthalmology CMV infection of the eye, a common opportunistic infection in AIDS, a complication of disseminated CMV infection Clinical Retinal inflammation, blindness Management Antivirals–eg, foscarnet, cidofovir, gancyclovir, systemically and as a ganciclovir implant Prognosis Without treatment, retinal necrosis, vision loss

cytomegalovirus retinitis

Abbreviation: CMV retinitis
The most common eye infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This opportunistic infection is responsible for visual impairment and blindness if left untreated.
See also: retinitis

retinitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis) 

A rare, chronic, diffuse infection of the retina caused by the cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesvirus group. It affects people with an impaired immune system as a result of either AIDS, organ transplantation or chemotherapy for some malignancies such as leukaemia. The signs are whitish retinal lesions, which look granular (not fluffy, cotton-wool spots). These lesions progress into retinal necrosis with absolute visual field loss in that area. The lesions are usually accompanied by haemorrhages. Eventually the lesions coalesce and involve the entire fundus, resulting in complete visual loss. In the initial phase of the disease most patients are usually asymptomatic while those with symptoms will complain of floaters, blurred vision, photopsia, scotomas, metamorphopsia, etc. In some cases, retinal detachment follows the disease. Treatment with dihydroxy propoxymethyl guanine and ganciclovir produces some regression of the disease. See acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome.
References in periodicals archive ?
Walmsley et al., "A controlled trial of valganciclovir as induction therapy for cytomegalovirus retinitis," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Das, "Management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy," International Journal of STD & AIDS, vol.
Burden of HIV-related cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource limited settings: A systematic review.
Mortality associated with resistant cytomegalovirus among patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis and AIDS.
Correlation between CD4+ counts and prevalence of cytomegalovirus retinitis and human immunodeficiency virus-related noninfectious retinal vasculopathy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Wonget al., "A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus retinitis," American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol.
Some immune-suppressed states, for example infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can result in cytomegalovirus retinitis.
Retinal detachment in AIDS-related cytomegalovirus retinitis. Eye, 1995, 9, 277-281.
Foscarnet therapy of cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS.
Oral valganciclovir was as effective as intravenous ganciclovir for induction therapy in AIDS patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis in a recent controlled trial.
Since the 1999 guidelines, new or strengthened recommendations are offered concerning discontinuation of primary prophylaxis against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE), and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease; and for discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis against PCP, cytomegalovirus retinitis, disseminated MAC, TE, and cryptococcal meningitis.