cytokine

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cytokine

 
a generic term for nonantibody proteins released by one cell population on contact with specific antigen, which act as intercellular mediators, as in the generation of an immune response.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn),
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication. See: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine, chemokines. See entries under various growth factors
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine.
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]

Most cytokines are small (less than 30 kD) soluble proteins or glycoproteins. Produced by macrophages, B and T lymphocytes, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and stromal cells of the spleen, thymus, and bone marrow, they act nonenzymatically through specific receptors to regulate immune responses, in particular modulating the balance between humoral and cell-mediated responses. They are involved in mediating immune and allergic responses by regulating the maturation, growth, and responsiveness of particular cell populations, sometimes including the cells that produce them (autocrine activity). A given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. Some cytokines enhance or inhibit the action of other cytokines. Their complex synergistic and antagonistic interactions fully justify the expression cytokine network. The first cytokines to be identified were named according to their functions (for example, T-cell growth factor), but this nomenclature became awkward because several cytokines can have the same function, and the function of a cytokine can vary with the circumstances of its elaboration. Later, as the chemical structure of each cytokine was determined, it was designated an interleukin and assigned a number (for example, interleukin-2 [IL-2], formerly T-cell growth factor). Cytokines have been implicated in the generation and recall of long-term memory and the focusing of attention. Some degenerative effects of aging may be due to a progressive loss of regulatory capacity by cytokines. Because cytokines derived from the immune system (immunokines) are cytotoxic, they have been used against certain types of cancer. Their clinical usefulness is limited by their short half-life and their wide-ranging and unpredictable side-effects.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cytokine

(sī′tə-kīn′)
n.
Any of several regulatory proteins, such as the interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act as intercellular mediators in the generation of an immune response.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

cytokine

Biological response modifier Any of a number of small 5–20 kD polypeptide signaling proteins of the immune system, which are produced by immune cells and have specific effects on cell-cell interaction, communication and behavior of other cells. See Biological response modifiers, Colony stimulating factor(s. ), Fibroblast growth factor, Interferons, Interleukins, Platelet-derived growth factor, Transforming growth factor β, Tumor necrosis factor.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Hormonelike proteins, secreted by many cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune responses and are involved in cell-to-cell communication.
See also: interferon, interleukin, lymphokine
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cytokine

intercellular PROTEIN or GLYCOPROTEIN signalling molecule, secreted by many cell types and involved in cellular regulation and proliferation. Cytokines exert their effects by binding to specific RECEPTORS on the membrane of target cells. They include GROWTH FACTORS, INTERLEUKINS and LYMPHOKINES.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Cytokine

A general term for nonantibody proteins released by a specific type of cell as part of the body's immune response.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cy·to·kine

(sī'tō-kīn)
Any of numerous hormonelike, low-molecular-weight proteins, secreted by various cell types, which regulate the intensity and duration of immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication.
See: interferon, interleukin
[cyto- + G. kinēsis, movement]
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
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Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines found in alcoholic human brain (He and Crews 2008) increase the reward value of alcohol drinking in mice (Blednov et al.
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The study of the level of cytokines: IL-1,TNF, IL-6, IL-4, IFN[gamma] in blood serum was conducted by the IFA method (OPO "Cytokine", Saint Petersburg) in the Institute of Immunology in Uzbekistan.
The results of research of cytokines levels in the sick infants are presented based on clinical manifestations of congenital clefts (Figure 4 and Table 1).
Thus, while analyzing a row of the level of inflammatory cytokines in blood serum of infants with congenital cleft we noted significant increase of TNF-[alpha] and IL-1[beta] in CCLP-2 and moderate increasing of their serum content in CCLP-1 in contrast with control group.
In the sick infants in microenvironment of Th0-cells the cytokines are present, providing development of population of Th2 cells; important role in this process plays IL-4, released by activated mast cells.
Polyfunctionality expects the participation of cytokines in different physiological and pathological processes.
As it is well known, the first synthesize the cytokines stimulating cellular immunity (IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, IFN, TNF[alpha] and oth.), the second synthesize the cytokines stimulating humoral immunity (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, TGF-(3, etc.).