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amplification system

Physiology A generic term for any group of proteins that function in coordinated sequences, forming positive feedback loops for expanding the response to a low intensity signal
Amplification systems
eg factor Xa activating factor 'X' in the presence of factor VIII, Ca2+, and phospholipid
Augments B-cell response. See Alternative and Classic pathways
Amplifies T-cell response, ILs, kinins, lipid mediators and mast cell products


A general term for a range of proteins of low molecular weight that exert a stimulating or inhibiting influence on the proliferation, differentiation and function of cells of the immune system. Cytokines include INTERLEUKINS and INTERFERONS.


Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors."

cytokines (sīˑ·tō·kīnz), regulatory proteins, such as lymphokines and interleukins that are produced by immune system cells and act as intercellular mediators in the modulation of immune response. Cytokines produced by recombinant DNA technology are administered to people to affect immune status.
References in periodicals archive ?
Cytokines and the brain: implications for clinical psychiatry.
The study limitations highlight the need for "a common set of inflammatory markers that must carefully be studied in order to understand the role of the cytokines in chronic psychiatric disorders and inform novel treatment decisions that may only be relevant to a subset of patients," he noted.
In addition to autoimmune diseases, elevated cytokines have been tied to depression.
This flood of inflammatory molecules, known as a cytokine storm, is thought to contribute to flu-related deaths in humans.
Levels of all the studied cytokines were significantly raised in cases rather than controls (P , 0.
RANKL is induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17, -1beta, and -6 and TNF-alpha, on osteoblastic stromal cells, osteoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells.
Conclusions: The cytokines were more elevated in kwashiorkor than marasmic kwashiorkor, marasmus or malaria alone.
The synthesis of cytokines by isolated lymphocytes and macrophages of placental deciduas was performed in 24-hour cell culture supernatants in severe hypoxia.
Anabolic cytokines act as growth and differentiation factors on chondrocytes to increase synthetic activity.
According to Vitrolife, these new products are the world's first biorisk-free growth factors and cytokines.
There have been considerable increases found in plasmatic cytokines after exhaustive exercise such as a marathon,(12) a triathlon,(13) and cycling competitions,(6) all of which have durations superior to one hour and are of competitive intensity.

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