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amplification system

Physiology A generic term for any group of proteins that function in coordinated sequences, forming positive feedback loops for expanding the response to a low intensity signal
Amplification systems
eg factor Xa activating factor 'X' in the presence of factor VIII, Ca2+, and phospholipid
Augments B-cell response. See Alternative and Classic pathways
Amplifies T-cell response, ILs, kinins, lipid mediators and mast cell products
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


A general term for a range of proteins of low molecular weight that exert a stimulating or inhibiting influence on the proliferation, differentiation and function of cells of the immune system. Cytokines include INTERLEUKINS and INTERFERONS.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005


Chemicals made by the cells that act on other cells to stimulate or inhibit their function. Cytokines that stimulate growth are called "growth factors."
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Interestingly, we found that, when CB- or mPB-derived [CD34.sup.+] cells were treated with combined proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-[alpha], CD13 expression was highly promoted.
Expression of serum cytokines (IL-17A, IL-21, IL-23, IL-10, and TNF-[alpha]) in H.
The rats were then sacrificed, and the cytokines were measured in the removed cochlear soft tissues using ELISA.
(13) Cytokines measurements were performed by the Cytometric Bead Array (CBA) Flex Set from BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA, USA.
However, in adjunct therapy, we observed significant results (in terms of parasite clearance in visceral organs, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines response and decreased/ marginal increase of anti-inflammatory cytokine response).
These multiple inflammatory mechanisms contribute to the increased pro-inflammatory circulating cytokines (9).
Viral infections also may induce the release of epithelial mediators and cytokines that may prop agate eosinophilia.
Some monoclonal antibody drugs, for example, have helped patients manage symptoms of the disease, but they work by neutralizing only specific types of cytokines. This is not sufficient to treat the disease, said Zhang, as there are many different types of cytokines and pathological molecules involved.
Cytokine hemoadsorption is found to be a safe and effective adjuvant in the management of sepsis.

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