To realize the antiplatelet effect, Clopidogrel requires biotransformation to an active metabolite by cytochrome P-450 enzymes
Oxidation of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals by human cytochrome P-450 enzymes
Interindividual variations in human liver cytochrome P-450 enzymes
involved in the oxidation of drugs, carcinogens and toxic chemicals: Studies with liver microsomes of 30 Japanese and 30 Caucasians.
Both alcohol and tobacco are known to induce hepatic cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, which can lead to altered metabolism of many drugs," he said.
The volatile organic compounds are either degraded by cytochrome P-450 enzymes
or excreted in the breath.
The hepatic metabolism of many medications is mediated by certain cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, and the antidepressants fluvoxamine and nefazodone interfere with certain P-450 enzymes.
At the end of the 4 weeks, the researchers killed the fish and extracted their cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, which break down chemicals.
The data also demonstrates that HepaLife's PICM-19 cells are able to express high levels of cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, a key liver-related function in the detoxification of drugs and xenobiotics.
This process, involving the Cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, and the subsequent creation of "designer enzymes," enables the biological production of more than 15,000 commercially available chemicals.
Cytochrome P-450 enzymes
have been implicated in most drug-drug interactions, including many cases of hepatotoxicity.
Drugs that induce cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, such as carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and topiramate, have been linked with a raised contraceptive failure rate--at least 6% per year, and in some cases as high as 20%, compared with 1% per year in non-treated populations.
The unique functionality of the PICM-19 cells allow them to successfully mimic the human liver's response in several important ways, including their ability to express high levels of cytochrome P-450 enzymes
, a key liver-related function in the detoxification of drugs and xenobiotics, and to favorably produce urea and successfully remove ammonia, a highly toxic by-product which causes brain damage, coma, and even death.