Cyklokapron


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tranexamic acid

(tran-ex-am-ikas -id) ,

Cyklokapron

(trade name),

Lysteda

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: hemostatic agents
Pharmacologic: antifibrinolytics
Pregnancy Category: B

Indications

Intravenous: Prevention or reduction of hemorrhage during and following dental surgery in hemophiliacs. Oral: Treatment of cyclic heavy menstrual bleeding.

Action

Inhibits activation of plasminogen, thereby preventing the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased bleeding following dental surgery in hemophiliacs.
Reduced need for replacement therapy.
Reduced menstrual blood loss.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: 100% bioavailable with IV administration; 45% bioavailability after oral administration.
Distribution: Penetrates readily into joint fluid and synovial membranes.
Metabolism and Excretion: 95% excreted unchanged in urine.
Half-life: 2 hr (IV) (↑ in renal impairment); 11 hr (PO).

Time/action profile (blood levels)

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
IVunknownunknown7–8 hr
POunknown2.5 hrunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Thromboembolic disorders (current, history of, or at risk for); Acquired defective color vision (IV); Subarachnoid hemorrhage;Concurrent use of combination hormonal contraception (PO).
Use Cautiously in: Renal impairment (↑ dosing interval); Hematuria originating in the upper urinary tract; Conditions associated with ↑ thrombus formation; Use of hormonal contraceptives (PO); Obstetric / Lactation / Pediatric: Safety not established.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • seizures (life-threatening)
  • headache (most frequent)
  • dizziness

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • visual abnormalities

Cardiovascular

  • hypotension
  • thromboembolism
  • thrombosis

Gastrointestinal

  • diarrhea
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Musculoskeletal

  • pain (most frequent)

Miscellaneous

    PO:
  • anaphylaxis (life-threatening)

Interactions

Drug-Drug interaction

Concurrent use of hormonal contraceptives may ↑ risk of thrombosis (PO); concurrent use contraindicated.Concurrent use of clotting factor complexes may ↑ the risk of thrombotic complications (give tranexamic acid 8 hr following clotting factor replacement therapy).May ↑ the procoagulant effects of all-trans retinoic acid.↓ effectiveness with thrombolytic agents.

Route/Dosage

Intravenous (Adults and Children) 10 mg/kg just prior to surgery with appropriate replacement therapy, then 10 mg/kg 3–4 times daily for 2–8 days.

Renal Impairment

Intravenous (Adults and Children) SCr 1.36–2.83 mg/dL—10 mg/kg twice daily; SCr 2.83–5.66 mg/dL— 10 mg/kg daily; SCr >5.66 mg/dL— 10 mg/kg every 48 hr or 5 mg/kg once daily.
Oral (Adults) 1300 mg 3 times daily for a maximum of 5 days during menstruation.

Renal Impairment

Oral (Adults) SCr 1.41–2.8 mg/dL–1300 mg twice daily for a maximum of 5 days during menstruation; SCr 2.81–5.7 mg/dL–1300 mg daily for a maximum of 5 days during menstruation; SCr >5.7 mg/dL–650 mg daily for a maximum of 5 days during menstruation;.

Availability (generic available)

Solution for injection: 100 mg/mL
Tablets: 650 mg

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Prevention of post-surgical hemorrhage: Observe site of surgery for excessive bleeding.
  • Heavy menstrual bleeding: Monitor menstrual flow prior to and during therapy.
  • Patients taking tranexamic acid for more than several days should have ophthalmologic examinations to detect visual abnormalities prior to and at regular intervals during and after therapy. Discontinue therapy if visual changes occur.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for injury (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)

Implementation

  • Oral: Administer 3 times daily without regard to food. Swallow tablets whole; do not crush, break, or chew.
  • Intravenous Administration
  • Intermittent Infusion: Diluent: May be diluted with most solutions, such as electrolyte, carbohydrate, amino acid, and dextran solutions. Prepare mixture on day of infusion.
  • Rate: Infuse at a rate not to exceed 100 mg (1 mL)/min. More rapid administration has resulted in hypotension.
  • Y-Site Compatibility: heparin
  • Y-Site Incompatibility: ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, blood, penicillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/clavulanate

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication as directed; do not take more than 6 tablets/day, for longer that 5 days in any menstrual cycle, or when not menstruating. Take missed doses as soon as remembered, then take next dose as least 6 hrs later; do not double doses. Advise patient to read Patient Information before starting and with each Rx refill in case of changes.
  • Advise patient to stop medication and inform health care professional of any changes in vision. Inform patients on prolonged therapy of the importance of regular ophthalmologic follow-up.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and consult health care professional before taking any new medications. Caution patient to avoid taking hormonal contraceptives and products containing aspirin or NSAIDs without consulting health care professional.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if signs and symptoms of thrombosis (severe, sudden headache; pains in chest, groin, or legs, especially calves; sudden loss of coordination; sudden and unexplained shortness of breath; slurred speech; visual changes; weakness or numbness in arm or leg) or anaphylaxis (shortness of breath, throat tightness, rash) occur.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional if heavy menstrual bleeding persists or worsens or if bleeding does not lessen after 2 cycles or tranexamic acid seems to stop working.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Prevention of hemorrhage during and following dental surgery in hemophiliacs.
  • Reduced menstrual blood loss.

Cyklokapron

A brand name for TRANEXAMIC ACID.
References in periodicals archive ?
Henderson had been charged with a breach of rule 53 and rule 200, in that he "allow S ed or caused to be administered, or connived at the administration of, tranexamic acid, under the brand name Cyklokapron, to Moonlit Path, either with the intention of affecting her racin g performance or in the knowledge that her racing performance could be affected by such".
The acquired products are well-known brands with good profitability; there are also target group synergies regarding the Cyklokapron product.
Henderson had been charged with a breach of rule 53 and rule 200, in that he "allowed or caused to be administered, or connived at the administration of, tranexamic acid, under the brand name Cyklokapron, to Moonlit Path, either with the intention of affecting her racing performance or in the knowledge that her racing performance could be affected by such".
Some of the leading brands in the portfolio include Angstrom, Buttercup, Claire Fisher, Cyklokapron, Eau Precieuse, Fenuril, Lyclear, Restivoil, TCP, and Trofodermin.
The royal trainer has been accused of three breaches of the rules after the sixyear-old mare tested positive for traces of the prohibited substance tranexamic acid, which was found in the anti-bleeding drug Cyklokapron, after she made her debut at Huntingdon in February.
Cyklokapron is a legitimate treatment but should not be present in a horse's system when it races.
In the Pharma business area, Cibacen and Cibadrex, cardiovascular products, which were acquired during 2005, and Cyklokapron, an antifibrinolytic, accounted for SEK 523 million of the sales increase.