cyanide

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Related to Cyano: cyanide, cyanobacteria

cyanide

 [si´ah-nīd]
a binary compound containing the radical CN— (cyanogen); since cyanide prevents tissue use of oxygen, most of its compounds are deadly poisons. Some inorganic compounds, such as cyanide salts, potassium cyanide, and sodium cyanide, are important in industry for extracting gold and silver from their ores or in electroplating, and other cyanide compounds are used in manufacture of synthetic rubber and textiles or as pesticides.
cyanide poisoning poisoning by cyanide or one of its compounds; most cyanide compounds are deadly poisons. Characteristics include nausea without vomiting, dizziness, convulsions, opisthotonos, and death from respiratory paralysis.

Treatment varies according to the nature of the poison. In the case of swallowed poison like hydrocyanic acid, the poison itself will cause vomiting. If the victim is able to swallow, milk or water may be given. A large dose of hydrocyanic acid will cause almost instant death. If a gas such as hydrogen cyanide has been inhaled, the victim should be taken into open air and given artificial respiration. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrate are used as antidotes to cyanide poisoning.

While poisoning may occur following exposure to any substance that releases cyanide ions, it can also occur concurrently if another toxic ion is present (for example, with mercuric cyanide). In such a situation, ironically the symptoms of toxicity may change to those of the second ion when the antidote to cyanide is used.

cy·a·nide

(sī'an-īd),
1. The radical -CN or ion (CN)-. The ion is extremely poisonous, forming hydrocyanic acid in water; has the odor of almond oil; inhibits proper metabolism of oxygen through disruption of respiratory proteins (cytochromes) at the cellular level.
2. A salt of HCN or a cyano-containing molecule.
3. Often used as a shortened term to describe cyanide gas.

cyanide

A highly reactive compound (CN–) with a high affinity for metal ions (e.g., iron of cytochrome oxidase); in vivo, cyanide usually exists as a salt—e.g., hydrogen cyanide (HCN), potassium cyanide (KCN) and others. HCN is produced by the thermal decomposition of various nitrogen-containing compounds, either natural (e.g., wool and silk) or synthetic (e.g., polyurethane and polyacrylonitrile) It is one of the two principal toxic gases that cause death in fires (the other is carbon monoxide); ambient cyanide levels of > 500 ppm are lethal within 10 minutes.
 
Laboratory
The mean cyanide concentration of victims who died in fatal fires in one study was 116 µmol/L, and 22 µmol/L in those who lived; the serum T1⁄2 for HCN is one hour. The plasma lactate levels in those who died was 29 mmol/L; lactate levels correlate well with HCN levels and may serve as a surrogate marker.
 
Management
Various agents have been used to treat cyanide poisoning, in particular those that transform haemoglobin to methaemoglobin, which avidly binds cyanide. This manoeuvre is limited by the methaemoglobin’s ferric state (Fe3+), which cannot bind O2, and at levels of > 30% exacerbates the tissue hypoxia caused by the cyanides.

cyanide

Toxicology A reactive ion–CN– with a high affinity for metal ions–eg, iron of cytochrome oxidase; in vivo, cyanide usually exists as a salt–eg, hydrogen cyanide–HCN, KCN, etc Lab Mean cyanide concentration of victims who died in fatal fires in one study was 116 µmol/L, and 22 µmol/L in those who lived; serum T1⁄2 for HCN is 1 hr; plasma lactate levels in those who died was 29 mmol/L; lactate levels correlate well with HCN levels and may serve as a surrogate marker Management Agents used to treat cyanide poisoning, include those that transform Hb to metHb, which avidly binds cyanide; this maneuver is limited by metHb's ferric state–Fe3+, which cannot bind O2, and at > 30% exacerbates tissue hypoxia caused by the cyanides

cy·a·nide

(sī'ăn-īd)
1. The radical -CN or ion (CN-). The ion is extremely poisonous, forming hydrocyanic acid in water; inhibits respiratory enzymes.
2. A salt of HCN.
3. A molecule containing a cyanide group.
4. A class of toxic chemical-warfare agents.
See also: blood agent, hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride

cyanide

any salt of hydrocyanic acid. Potassium cyanide (KCN) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are the commonest examples of cyanides, all of which are extremely poisonous. They combine with cytochrome enzymes (e.g. CYTOCHROME OXIDASE), which transfer hydrogen atoms in CELLULAR RESPIRATION, and thus block the production of energy in the cells.
References in periodicals archive ?
2 showed several characteristic absorption peaks at 2233 and 1651 [cm.sup.-1] attributed to the stretching vibration of cyano group (C [equivalent to] N) and carbonyl (C=O), respectively, which correlated well with the chemical structure of m-PAEK-CN shown in Fig.
The mesogens are a nonpolar nematic with a methoxy (OCH3) end group and a polar nematic with a cyano (CN) end group [10].
The most retentive stationary phases at low percentages of ACN were C8, Synergi Polar RP, C4, and to some extent cyano, with C8 exhibiting remarkably higher retentivity.
Anomalous heteroring opening of oxazinone by azide was supposed to occur via nucleophilic attack of azide either at C-2 of oxazinone ring followed by ring opening and addition of azido group on cyano group to yield tetrazolylfuran derivative 10 or at C-4 of oxazinone followed by Curtius's rearrangement to isocyanate intermediate and then cyclization to give furo[3,2-d]imidazolone derivative 11 as summarized at Scheme 4.
The obtained FTIR results were satisfactory (Figure 2) to differentiate between absence and presence of one or two cyano groups.
Table-1: Tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (II) dichloride Catalyzed Oxidative Addition of Cyano and
In the light of these facts, we proposed to synthesize a series of poly(aryl ether ketone) oligomers containing phthalonitrile with variable main chain length and cyano side groups by using 4,4'-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,6-difluorobenzonitrile, and the endcapping reagent 4-nitrophthalonitrile.
The company is launching more phase chemistries, expanding the selectivity available with its Diphenyl functionality as well as adding a C8, Cyano and HILIC phase chemistry to the 1.7-[micro]m UHPLC range.
Additional columns in the Hypersil GOLD family feature C8, CN (cyano) and PFP (perfluorophenyl) phases.
Whereas, the presence of cyano group provides high electron affinity to the polymer backbone and hence polymers such as cyano-substituted PPV (CN-PPV) exhibits high internal efficiency in PLEDs (32).
For alternate selectivity, or for normal phase separations, a cyano stationary phase is used.
And, the absorption strength appears relatively weak is due to the cyano group which is an effective extinction reagent.