However, the final version of the manual was criticized by various members of the panel as it included only a few of the reported cultural aspects and because of the decision to insert culture-bound syndromes only as an appendix to the manuals (10-12).
Ataques de nervios in Puerto Rico: culture-bound syndrome or popular illness?
Emotional experiences that affect mental health and illness manifest in distinctive forms across cultural contexts as culture-bound syndromes (Chiao, 2015), which refer to patterns of maladaptive behavior that occur within a local context and are distinct from non-culture-bound syndromes (Lee et al.
Hwa-byung (HB; see model in Figure 1 developed by Choi, Pang, & Kim, 2006) is a Korean culture-bound syndrome that translates into English as an anger disorder.
There is also information on cultural expectations for professional dress codes, acceptable interactions between men and women, and culture-bound syndromes
There are many culture-bound syndromes
, for example, some of which are mentioned in the classification systems, and more new ones are fast emerging.
The clear absence in the DSM of culture-specific syndromes or culture-bound syndromes related to macrolevel issues--such as acculturation adjustments, migration and immigration trauma, ethnic-racial identity confusion, or PTSD due to socially sanctioned racism or violence (Velasquez et al.
For example, although the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) includes a glossary of 25 culture-bound syndromes for use with culturally and racially diverse clients, this is by no means an exhaustive list and is limited when used for the assessment and diagnosis of people of color.
Some of the most common culture-bound syndromes described among Latinos include empacho (stomach ailment), susto (fright), caida de mollera (fallen fontanelle), mal de ojo (evil eye), bilongo/hechizo (hex), ataques de nervios (attack of the nerves), and envidia (envy) (Spicer, 1977; Trotter, 1981).
Many Latinos prefer spiritual healers, rather than a physician, to treat culture-bound syndromes because a physician does not have the knowledge or the understanding to treat the syndromes (Applewhite, 1995; Rivera, Lucero, & Salazar, 1979).
They are referred for culture-bound syndromes and physical illnesses.
Anthropologists have demonstrated that culture-bound syndromes
such as semen depletion (Bottero, 1991; Herdt, 1997) or erectile dysfunction (Inhorn, 2002a; Potts, 2000) depend not only on culturally specific understandings of human reproductive physiology, but also on a phallocentric perspective on human sexuality that de-emphasizes other forms of male sexual expression and pleasure.