From 20072016 there were no reported cases of EEE in humans in Maryland; however, there have been EEE cases reported in horses and in mosquitoes, for example, Culiseta melanura and Culex salinarius
. (30,31) The BioTEMS has been used to predict EEE in other states and is capable of predicting the risk of EEE geographically to within 30 m.
Culex nigripalpus Culex quinquefasciatus Culex salinarius
Culiseta inornata Deinocerites mathesoni Mansonia titillans Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis Uranotaenia spp.
Horizontal and vertical transmission of West Nile virus genotype NY99 by Culex salinarius
and genotypes NY99 and WN02 by Culex tarsalis.
cinereus, Anopheles punctipennis, Culex salinarius
pipiens and Culex quinquefasciatus), Culex tarsalis, Culex stigmatosoma, Culex salinarius
, Culex nigripalpus, and Culex restuans have been implicated as urban vectors of WNV (Hayes et al.
Among the WNV-positive pools, 4,987 (75%) had species of Culex mosquitoes thought to be the principal vectors of WNV (e.g., Culex pipiens, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex restuans, Culex salinarius
, and Culex tarsalis).
Blood meals were identified from 6 horses and 4 cows in the 10 Mansonia titillans Walker, from 2 horses and 1 cow in 3 Aedes vexans Meigen, from 1 cow and 1 deer in 2 Culex salinarius
Coquillett, and from 1 rabbit in Culex erraticus Dyer & Knab, while all 3 Anopheles crucians Wiedemann fed upon horses.
The earliest species found positive for WNV were Aedes vexans, Culex pipiens, Culex restuans, and Culex salinarius
(Godsey et al., 2005).
Mosquito Surveillance Data From a High Risk Area Species 08/31/15 09/02/15 09/09/15 Aedes albopictus 115 113 88 Aedes vexans 1 16 Anopheles crucians complex Anopheles quadrimaculatus 2 2 Culex erraticus 27 Culex nigripalpus 1 Culex quinquefasciatus 6 19 2 Culex salinarius
69 30 Ochlerotatus triseriatus 1 4 Orthopodomyia signifera Psorophora columbiae 1 Psorophora ferox Grand Total 122 236 139 Species 09/23/15 10/14/15 Species total Aedes albopictus 98 65 479 Aedes vexans 2 19 Anopheles crucians complex 4 4 Anopheles quadrimaculatus 13 4 21 Culex erraticus 2 29 Culex nigripalpus 2 3 Culex quinquefasciatus 147 38 212 Culex salinarius
3 779 881 Ochlerotatus triseriatus 3 8 16 Orthopodomyia signifera 2 2 Psorophora columbiae 2 2 5 Psorophora ferox 1 1 Grand Total 275 900 1,672 Table 4.
Feeding patterns of Culex salinarius
Coquillett in Jefferson Parish, Louisiana.
WNV also was detected in 38 mosquito pools collected in 10 counties in four states, representing at least nine species, including a pool of six Culex salinarius
collected in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 11, a mixed pool of Cx.