Cubomedusae


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Cubomedusae

an order of aquatic animals including sea wasps and box jellyfish, e.g. Chironex fleckeri.
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While the equivalent of the motor nerve net is present in cubomedusae, a subumbrellar network with staining properties similar to the scyphozoan diffuse nerve net (FMRFamide immunoreactivity) was represented only by central components in the nerve ring and rhopalia of cubomedusae (Eichinger and Satterlie, 2014).
Laboratory and field observations show that cubomedusae respond to shadowing and are able to actively avoid obstacles in their environment (Berger, 1900; Hamner et al.
Multiple conducting systems and the organization of the centralized nervous system in cubomedusae
In view of the abundance of sensory cells on the rhopalium itself, it has been suggested that body position relative to gravity is detected on a larger scale, with the statolith acting as a "weight" only, as has been proposed for cubomedusae (Garm et al.
FMRFamide immunoreactivity in the subumbrella of scyphomedusae is contrasted by that of cubomedusae, in which the peripheral modulation of swim musculature apparently has been lost in favor of a more centralized FMRFamide-IR system (Eichinger and Satterlie, 2014).
Comparison of the scyphomedusan and cubomedusan nervous systems is important since the cubomedusae were originally included within the class Scyphozoa, and only recently were elevated to class status (class Cubozoa; Werner et al.
Within the swim system of cubomedusae, the density of neurons in the velarial nerve net appears to exceed that of the subumbrellar net (Satterlie, 2002).
This includes a further test of a prediction formed from our work on scyphomedusae: staining with anti-tubulin antibodies labels networks associated with swim muscle sheets in cubomedusae, whereas the FMRFamide antibody labels networks that include putative sensory components.
Cubomedusae have four rhopalia, one on each side of the bell (Fig.
Here we describe the invaginated synapses of four species of cubomedusae.
Strong, efficient swimmers (Stewart, 1996), cubomedusae can change swim direction in one or two individual bell contractions.
Some hydromedusae are as maneuverable as cubomedusae.