CTLA-4

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CTLA-4

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(1,17) Despite such a "hostile" microenvironment full of immune cells, MSI-H tumor cells are not eliminated by the immune system because of the cancer-specific upregulation of inhibitory checkpoints, including PD-1, CTLA4, LAG3, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO).
Zoledziewska et al., "Allelic variant in CTLA4 is associated with thyroid failure and faster [beta]-cell exhaustion in latent autoimmune diabetes in adults," Journal of Diabetes, vol.
Amirzargar et al., "Association of CTLA4 gene polymorphism in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis," Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol.
Polymorphisms in the promoter -318C/T, exon 1 + 49A/G in the 3'-untranslated region of exons, and CT60 in the CTLA4 gene have been confirmed to be associated with organ-specific autoimmune diseases [25,55,56].
Moura et al., "Association of TNF-a, CTLA4, and PTPN22 polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes and other autoimmune diseases in Brazil," Genetics and Molecular Research, vol.
Indeed two recent papers show its role in modulating the anticancer activity of CTLA4 and PD1 blockade.
Among these diseases, APECED, ALPS, IPEX, IPEX-like syndromes (CD25 and STAT5b deficiency, LRBA deficiency, CTLA4 deficiency, gain of function mutation of the STAT1 gene), IL-10/IL-10 receptor deficiency and newly defined Phospholipase C-gamma-2-related autoantibody deficiency and immune dysregulation (PLAID) are characterized by autoimmunity.
CTLA4 is a gene involved in the regulation of T-cell function and some studies have suggested that sequence variation of this gene might be a determinant of disease susceptibility.
After injection of the tumor-bearing mouse model with DNA vaccine, the plasmid carrying the fusion gene of CTLA4 and PSCA showed stronger inhibition of tumor growth than the plasmid expressing PSCA alone.
CTLA4 is the homolog of CD28 molecule which interacts with the same ligands but with different affinity.
Another is to use ipilimumab, a drug that activates T-cells by blocking a protein called CTLA4.
Another approach is to treat patients with ipilimumab, a drug that activates the patient's anti-tumour T cells by blocking the function of a protein called CTLA4.