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abbreviation for Cheyne-Stokes respiration.


Abbreviation for:
caesarean section rate
cataract surgery rate
central serous retinopathy
central supply room
cervical spine radiography
cervical spondylotic radiculopathy
Cheyne-Stokes respiration
combat stress reaction
Comprehensive Spending Review (Medspeak-UK)
corrected survival rate
cortisol secretion rate
cytoskeletal reorganisation


(ret?in-op'a-the) [ retina + -pathy]
Any noninflammatory retinal damage or disease. It can cause gradual loss of vision or complete blindness if left untreated. It often results from another, systemic illness (e.g., hypertension or diabetes mellitus). See: table

albuminuric retinopathy

Hypertensive retinopathy.

arteriosclerotic retinopathy

Retinopathy accompanying generalized arteriosclerosis and hypertension.

central serous retinopathy

Abbreviation: CSR
Serous detachment under the macula due to leakage of fluid from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal space between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. It occurs most often in men aged 20 to 40, typically involves one eye, and often resolves spontaneously.

circinate retinopathy

A ring of degenerated white exudative area of the retina around the macula.
Synonym: circinate retinitis

diabetic retinopathy

Abbreviation: DR
Retinal damage marked by microaneurysms, hemorrhage, macular edema or macular ischemia, or retinal exudates in patients with longstanding diabetes mellitus. This common complication of long-standing diabetes may result in blindness. Strict control of blood sugar levels and of high blood pressure reduces the incidence of the disease. Regular ophthalmological screening helps to detect the disease before it causes irreversible visual loss. Treatment includes retinal laser surgery or vitrectomy.

DR is divided into two groups: non- proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) consisting of blot, dot hemorrhages, exudate, and macular edema; and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), consisting of abnormal new vessels and fibrotic tissue. Approximately 50% of patients who have had diabetes for more than 15 years will have some form of diabetic retinopathy.

See: visual field for illus

eclipse retinopathy

Solar retinopathy.

hypertensive retinopathy

Retinopathy associated with hypertension, toxemia of pregnancy, or glomerulonephritis. Findings on physical examination include a hazy retina, blurred disk margins, distention of retinal arteries, retinal hemorrhages, and white patches in the fundus, esp. surrounding the papilla and at the stellate figure at the macula. Synonym: albuminuric retinitis; albuminuric retinopathy See: Keith-Wagener-Barker classification

retinopathy of prematurity

Abbreviation: ROP
A bilateral disease of the retinal vessels in preterm infants. It is the most prominent cause of blindness among preterm infants. Its cause is unknown despite much research, but oxygen levels and other environmental factors may be factors. The disease is marked by retinal neovascularization in the first weeks of life. Retinal detachment may occur. Cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation can be curative if instituted early in the illness. Synonym: retrolental fibroplasia

In treating preterm infants, it is possible to prevent ROP by using only the lowest possible effective oxygen concentration that will not endanger the life of the infant. Monitoring arterial blood oxygen levels is essential in preventing ROP. Too much restriction of oxygen, however, increases the likelihood of hyaline membrane disease and neurological disorders. All preterm infants treated with supplemental oxygen should be examined carefully by an ophthalmologist before discharge from the hospital. Once blindness develops, there is no effective treatment.

solar retinopathy

Pathological changes in the retina after looking directly at the sun. This condition is seen frequently following an eclipse of the sun. Synonym: eclipse retinopathy
See: scotoma, eclipse
arteriovenous nicking
blot hemorrhages
flame-shaped hemorrhages
focal or generalized arteriolar narrowing
hard exudates
macular edema
soft exudates (“cotton-wool”) spots

central serous retinopathy

Abbreviation: CSR
Serous detachment under the macula due to leakage of fluid from the choriocapillaris into the subretinal space between the retina and retinal pigment epithelium. It occurs most often in men aged 20 to 40, typically involves one eye, and often resolves spontaneously.
See also: retinopathy
References in periodicals archive ?
In the communication arena, a multitude of scholars have linked CSR to the PR and communication functions.
A 2005 study of CSR in the Silicon Valley area of Northern California, conducted by IABC staff member Archana Verma, illustrates the nature and extent of such programs, factors that influence a company's CSR activities, and the implications of corporate giving to relief efforts for natural and manmade disasters.
CSR continues to innovate in these other markets with a raft of partnerships under the company's eXtension Partner Programme bringing a wide range of audio enhancements to CSR's multimedia Bluetooth products, in particular to headsets where CSR won 84% of the designs in 2006.
CSR's UniFi single-chip WiFi products are also continuing to penetrate the market, and, as part of its convergence strategy, CSR launched two products: UniVox, a low cost, low power Voice over IP solution for DECT-replacement handsets for the home; and UniVox Mobile, a WiFi and Bluetooth subsystem for converting mobile handsets into dual mode Voice over IP handsets.
A growing body of empirical research demonstrates that CSR has a positive effect on business performance across key constituencies and business sectors.
Lu continued, "The CSR UniVox example design meant that we have been able to bring these handsets to mass production within a very short space of time.
CSR will be demonstrating its high-sensitivity, A-GPS solutions at 3GSM with its global GPS assistance server supporting standardised SUPL (secure user plane location) for use in mobile handsets.
With a combined GPS and EGPS software for handsets, CSR will be able to offer the most competitive, complete and technically advanced mobile GPS solution available to mobile handset, PND, and other portable device makers and operators.
Lenka Koloma, Senior Director of Strategic IC Partners & Sales, SRS Labs, commented, "Bluetooth technology has changed the way mobile devices are used and CSR has been instrumental in making Bluetooth a mass market technology.
In addition, if the ambient noise level changes, the CSR DSP inside BlueCore5-Multimedia running ATLAS will automatically adjust the volume level in the headset to maintain intelligibility.
CSR will continue to expand this Programme by working with the most advanced third-party integrated software on the market.
CSR today announced that its BlueCore5-Multimedia silicon is now shipping in volume.