are thought to have evolved from ancestral photolyases associated with light-dependent DNA repair (Mei and Dvornyk.
, phytochrome, and anthocyanin production.
(https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs003590050327) Previous studies indicated birds' magnetoreception or the ability to sense magnetic field could be linked to cryptochromes
' ability to detect certain wavelengths.
At the molecular level, the molecular machinery that generates circadian rhythms involves CLOCK- (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) BMAL1 (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1) heterodimers that control the periodic expression of Per (periods 1-3) and Cry (cryptochrome
Since these cryptochromes
act in the production of anthocyanin, we believe that these receptors may also be associated with the production of betalains, once they are exclusively present in the order Caryophyllales, replacing anthocyanins (Gandia-Herrero et al., 2005).
The CLOCK and BMAL1 complex is the transcription factor that acts as a positive regulator of circadian clock gene expression, such as regulation of the period and cryptochrome
families, while period and cryptochrome
proteins feedback and inhibit their own expression and other clock genes  (see Figure 4).
Radical pair reactions, in contrast, are known to be sensitive to the intensity of MFs as weak as the geomagnetic field , and effects on radical pair reactions in the suggested magnetoreceptor molecules cryptochromes
 could plausibly affect proliferation through their role in regulation of the cell cycle [12, 23].
1 and 2 (Cry1 and Cry2) were also identified and characterized during that time [8-11].
But Hore and colleagues' simulations of cryptochromes
show that a little bit of quantum deterioration can actually enhance the strength of the magnetic field's effect on the chemical reactions.
The core loop includes a brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1/circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Bmal1/clock) heterodimer that binds to Enhancer Box (E-box) containing elements on the promoters of the core clock genes, period (Per1, Per2, Per3), and cryptochrome
(Cry1, Cry2) [1, 2].
The action mechanisms of plant cryptochromes
. Trends Plant Sci.