However, the origin of such abnormalities is usually determined by the temperature reduction or to the exposure to toxicity of cryoprotectant
The basis for the effects of cryoprotectants
is not simply osmotic, but due to direct biochemical injury, which can be: inactivation or denaturation of specific enzymes, disruption of transmembrane ionic pumps, or other related perturbation of cellular structure and function by implication.
In vitrification, the oocytes may be prone to damage by a variety of factors, including the toxicity of cryoprotectants
, cold shock, and incomplete vitrification (allowing some ice crystal formation) which resulting osmotic stress (Yoon et al, 2003).
reduce protein oxidation and structure deterioration induced by freeze-thaw cycles in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Surimi," Food Biophysics, vol.
were suspended in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a cryoprotectant
Some of investigations showed that vitrification methods by various careers and cryoprotectants
impacted on mitochondrial structure and function (17, 30, 33, 61, 62).
Osmotic stress and chemical toxicity promoted by cryoprotectants
are two major problems associated with the low efficiency of this technique.
Moreover, there are several important factors for successful cryopreservation including composition of the cryopreservation medium and nature of the cryoprotectants
, the freezing-thawing procedure, and the intrinsic susceptibility of the cells to freeze damage.
Therefore, an identification of novel cryoprotectants
and suitable conditions for cryopreservation is a prerequisite step and represents a critical approach.
In general, bacteria have a higher tolerance to freezing and toxicity of cryoprotectants
in high concentrations, while fungi are the most sensitive to these conditions.
However, surimi is an intermediate product that is typically mixed with cryoprotectants
and then subjected to a period of frozen storage prior to being manufactured into different products.
are any substance, either biological or chemical, which protects the microbial or eukaryotic cells/tissues/organ from degradation or inactivation during freeze-storage.