cross-sectional study

(redirected from Cross-sectional survey)
Also found in: Encyclopedia.

study

 [stud´e]
a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.



The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

1. a study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint (for example, a survey in which all members of a given population, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled for a given characteristic or finding in one day).
2. analysis of (an) anatomic or other structure(s) by means of a series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and the surrounding environment.
Synonym(s): synchronic study

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek'shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
A study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time (e.g., a survey in which all voters, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled in 1 day).
Synonym(s): synchronic study.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek-shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
1. Study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint.
2. Analysis of anatomic or other structure(s) by series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and surrounding environment.

cross-sectional study

a study in which a statistically significant sample of a population is used to estimate the relationship between an outcome of interest and population variables as they exist at one particular time. Since both the outcome and the variables are measured at the one time these studies are not strong at showing cause-effect relationships.
References in periodicals archive ?
Bacterial contamination and stethoscope disinfection practices: a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers in Karachi, Pakistan.
Gles: cross-sectional survey (by-election) execution of the by-election poll in case of an early election to the german bundestag
This cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics, Darul Sehat hospital, Karachi from December 01, 2014 till February 28, 2015 as there is more reported cases of ARI during winter season in our hospital.
Although attrition is less of a concern with a cross-sectional survey than with a longitudinal one, missing data (respondents not completing certain questions) can be problematic.
The design of the baseline cross-sectional survey (survey-0) was different from the cross-sectional surveys after the start of the bednet intervention (survey-1 and survey-2).
A cross-sectional survey on sexual behavior among MSM was conducted in two HIV counseling and testing clinics in Beijing between July 2010 and October 2010.
Wandei S, Nangami M and Egesa O, Ability and willingness to pay for voluntary medical male circumcision: a cross-sectional survey in Kisumu County, Kenya, AIDS Care, 2016, 28(4):471-474.
Keywords: Patient satisfaction, Single step cross-sectional survey, Written questionnaire.
Data source: A cross-sectional survey with data from NHANES from 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2012.
The cross-sectional survey of 2,120 Bahrainis aged 40 to 69 showed that hypertension rose with increasing degrees of glucose intolerance.
Methods--A national cross-sectional survey of a cohort population was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were received from 1017 female veterinarians who completed the mental health section of the survey.
The research team at the Pennsylvania School of Nursing analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of registered nurses in California, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, about hospital work environment, nurse staffing levels and educational attainment, as well as data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey.