cross-sectional study

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a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.

The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

1. a study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint (for example, a survey in which all members of a given population, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled for a given characteristic or finding in one day).
2. analysis of (an) anatomic or other structure(s) by means of a series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and the surrounding environment.
Synonym(s): synchronic study
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek'shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
A study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time (e.g., a survey in which all voters, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled in 1 day).
Synonym(s): synchronic study.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek-shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
1. Study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint.
2. Analysis of anatomic or other structure(s) by series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and surrounding environment.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
The new research, "Availability of breastfeeding peer-support in the UK: a cross-sectional survey", was published in the journal Maternal and Child Nutrition.
In three of the studies reported in this issue, researchers used a cross-sectional survey design to collect quantitative data (Fennessey, 2016; Vicensi et al., 2016; Xu, Rich, & Connor, 2016).
Between October 1999 and December 2003, three cross-sectional surveys were conducted as part of the bednet project to determine the impact of bednets on all cause morbidity in pre-school children.18 The first cross-sectional survey represented the baseline survey and was conducted prior to the distribution of the bednets to intervention villages in December and during short rains.
(1.) Wandei S, Nangami M and Egesa O, Ability and willingness to pay for voluntary medical male circumcision: a cross-sectional survey in Kisumu County, Kenya, AIDS Care, 2016, 28(4):471-474.
Keywords: Patient satisfaction, Single step cross-sectional survey, Written questionnaire.
Data source: A cross-sectional survey with data from NHANES from 1988 to 1994 and 1999 to 2012.
The research team at the Pennsylvania School of Nursing analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of registered nurses in California, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, about hospital work environment, nurse staffing levels and educational attainment, as well as data from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the BESS in high school-aged students, a cross-sectional survey approach was used.
To evaluate the policy, students collected 292 responses from a cross-sectional survey, conducted interviews with those implementing the policy, and conducted observations on campus.
The cross-sectional survey found that the 433 girls who had been offered the HPV vaccine were no more likely to be sexually active than the 620 girls who had not been offered the HPV vaccine.
Serum samples (n = 347) were collected during 2004-2009 in a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against HEV, Brucella spp., and mycobacteria.
[7.] Ter Kuile FO, Terlouw DJ, Phillips-Howard PA, Hawley WA, Friedman JF, Kariuki S, Ya Ping Shi, Kwena A, Vulule J and BL Nahlen Impact of Permethrin treated bednets on malaria and all cause morbidity in young children in an area of intense perennial malaria transmission in western Kenya: cross-sectional survey. Am.