cross-sectional study

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Related to Cross-sectional design: Longitudinal design

study

 [stud´e]
a careful examination of a phenomenon; see also design.
cohort study prospective study.
cross-sectional study one employing a single point of data collection for each participant or system being studied. It is used for examining phenomena expected to remain static through the period of interest. It contrasts with a longitudinal s.
electrophysiological s's (EPS) studies from within the heart of its electrical activation and response to electrical stimuli and certain drugs. In general they include intravenous and/or intra-arterial placement of one or more electrode catheters at sites in the atria, ventricles, or coronary sinus, and sometimes the pulmonary artery or aorta. They record activity or stimulate the heart at various rates and cadences and are aids in the evaluation of electrophysiologic properties such as automaticity, conduction, and refractoriness. They also initiate and terminate tachycardias, map the sequence of activation, and aid in evaluation of patients for various forms of therapy and for the response to therapy. During these studies catheter ablation procedures, such as radio frequency ablation and electrical ablation, may be performed.
flow study uroflowmetry.
longitudinal study one in which participants, processes, or systems are studied over time, with data being collected at multiple intervals. The two main types are prospective studies and retrospective studies. It contrasts with a cross-sectional s.
pilot study a smaller version of a proposed research study, conducted to refine the methodology of the later one. It should be as similar to the proposed study as possible, using similar subjects, the same setting, and the same techniques of data collection and analysis.
prospective study an epidemiologic study in which the groups of individuals (cohorts) are selected on the bases of factors that are to be examined for possible effects on some outcome. For example, the effect of exposure to a specific risk factor on the eventual development of a particular disease can be studied. The cohorts are then followed over a period of time to determine the incidence rates of the outcomes being studied as they relate to the original factors in question. Called also cohort study.



The term prospective usually implies a cohort selected in the present and followed into the future, but this method can also be applied to existing longitudinal historical data, such as insurance or medical records. A cohort is identified and classified as to exposure to the risk factor at some date in the past and followed up to the present to determine incidence rates. This is called a historical prospective study, prospective study of past data, or retrospective cohort study.
retrospective study an epidemiologic study in which participating individuals are classified as either having some outcome (cases) or lacking it (controls); the outcome may be a specific disease, and the persons' histories are examined for specific factors that might be associated with that outcome. Cases and controls are often matched with respect to certain demographic or other variables but need not be. As compared to prospective studies, retrospective studies suffer from drawbacks: certain important statistics cannot be measured, and large biases may be introduced both in the selection of controls and in the recall of past exposure to risk factors. The advantage of the retrospective study is its small scale, usually short time for completion, and its applicability to rare diseases, which would require study of very large cohorts in prospective studies. See also prospective s.
urinary flow study uroflowmetry.
voiding pressure study simultaneous measurement of bladder contraction, urinary flow, and sphincter electromyogram.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

1. a study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint (for example, a survey in which all members of a given population, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled for a given characteristic or finding in one day).
2. analysis of (an) anatomic or other structure(s) by means of a series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and the surrounding environment.
Synonym(s): synchronic study

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek'shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
A study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single point in time (e.g., a survey in which all voters, regardless of age, religion, gender, or geographic location, are sampled in 1 day).
Synonym(s): synchronic study.

cross-sec·tion·al stud·y

(kraws'sek-shŭn-ăl stŭd'ē)
1. Study in which groups of individuals of different types are composed into one large sample and studied at only a single timepoint.
2. Analysis of anatomic or other structure(s) by series of planar sections or radiographic images through the structure(s) and surrounding environment.
References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, only a few studies made use of a cross-sectional design to measure the aggressiveness among young martial artists.
If mood and performance relationships are individualized, this presents a serious limitation for testing theoretical links using a cross-sectional design. For example.
In the Safer Choices project, several factors favored the selection of a cross-sectional design. At two years, the intervention was fairly long.
Although the cross-sectional design of the study did not allow for causal conclusions or for the measurement of a third causative variable such as neuroticism, the authors concluded that their data were important, because "adequate coping strategies, social support, and the ability to deal with stress can reduce the perceived illness stigma and its serious consequences for patients with SLE."
Although limited by the cross-sectional design and self-reported data, this study provides important information for clinicians, as "subjective complaints are important when choosing treatment.
884) measured blood lead distributions among schoolchildren living near the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, using a stratified, cross-sectional design to obtain blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 4-to 8-year-old children.
The investigators acknowledge that the cross-sectional design of the survey prevented them from determining if coerced sex had direct negative effects on women's sexual health.
Selvin and her associates acknowledged certain limitations of the study, including its cross-sectional design and the fact that only one measurement of fasting glucose was taken.
The study utilized a cross-sectional design and collected data using a mailed survey.
Tuot acknowledged study limitations, including the cross-sectional design and the fact that NHANES lacks specific information about care providers.
However, because of the study's cross-sectional design, the researchers caution that the causality of the link between access to HIV therapy and negative attitudes cannot be determined; in addition, these results, which may not apply to all Botswanans, could be influenced by social desirability bias and by recent initiatives designed to reduce stigma, such as "opt-out" HIV testing.
"Our study is limited because it can suggest, but not prove, causal relationships because of its cross-sectional design," Dr.