The structural integrity and stability of hydrogels are provided by cross-linking agents
through physical interactions and chemical bonds.
Some of the basic components (pre-polymer, conventional cross-linking agent
, platinum catalyst and filler) were used in all formulations but in varying amounts.
It was demonstrated that citric acid acts as a cross-linking agent
in the films and the result was consistent with some previous studies [20, 21].
The effect of alginate concentration, cross-linking agent
concentration, and cross-linking time on the encapsulation efficiency of S.
From Figure 5, it can be observed that the particles without yeast cells (a) have a porous morphology when they are swollen, while the particles with immobilized yeast cells (b) take amore compact morphology with the cells being well embedded in the polymer matrix due to the salt-bridge binding with the cross-linking agent
having the tendency to form agglomerates.
The cross-linking agent
only reacted with a spot of free hydroxyl groups on the surface of the resin and remaining crosslinking agents vaporized on heating.
For use as cell scaffolds, recent studies have sought to increase the mechanical and thermal resiliency through compositing with various compounds [21,22] and by utilization of covalent cross-linking agents
In the second step, one of the constituent polymers is polymerized and cross-linked using a cross-linking agent
. As a result a semi-IPN is formed till the second stage.
Biocompatible nanosystem can be achieved by modulating different parameters such as fabrication techniques, polymers used for its synthesis, and types of cross-linking agents
; however, among these, polymers play the most significant role as they not only enter framework that carries drug but also interact with biological fluid and cells in the in vivo system [5-8].
Another new technique which has been developed is called 'flash-linking', which uses a customised photoactive cross-linking agent
requiring only 30 seconds of UVA exposure.
Key words: co-valent bond, cross-linking agent
, gossypium, beta-glucose, colour fastness.
The data are presented at the percent of cells positive for RAD51 foci before and after treatment with the DNA cross-linking agent
, mitomycin C (MMC).