pollination

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pollination

the transfer of pollen from male to female reproductive organs in higher plants, for example, microsporangium to ovule in GYMNOSPERMS, and anther to stigma in ANGIOSPERMS. In flowering plants the flowers show a strong link between structure and the method of pollination (see ANEMOPHILY, ENTOMOPHILY).

Many angiosperms carry out CROSS-POLLINATION. Some of these types, such as brassicas, have SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY systems to prevent self-pollination. Self-pollination, however, is common in certain plants, such as groundsel or chickweed.

Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Especially, the germination of grape seeds obtained from self pollinations are usually lower than those from open or cross pollinations (Doijode, 2001).
Pollinator efficiency was estimated by dividing the number of fruits or viable seeds on natural pollination by the same parameters on manipulated cross pollination. Thus, it measures if there is pollinator shortage or poor pollinator activity in the natural population.
All species display high fruit set by cross pollination except T.
Here we are referring to the transfer through cross pollination between natural indigenous species--wheat, rice, corn, potatoes and legumes--of the inability to reproduce normally due to terminator technology.
"You cannot dictate to a bee or a bird where they go to feed or gather nectar, therefore the great fear is cross pollination.
Researchers are concerned that manufactured genes for herbicide tolerance, and pest and viral resistance might escape and, through cross pollination, insert themselves into the genetic makeup of weedy relatives, creating weeds that are resistant to herbicides, pests and viruses.
The professionals recommend planting different varieties of corn a minimum of one mile apart--literally--to avoid cross pollination. The easier answer may be to plant them in different years.
The studies were conducted using the methods of self pollination and cross pollination, with direct crosses and reciprocal pollination in order to evaluate the effect related to the quantity of fruits that accomplish their growing process.