plant breeding

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plant breeding

the science that aims to improve the quality and yield of plants by the genetic engineering of varieties. The main tool of the plant breeder is SELECTION, by which it is possible to alter the genetic constitution of a plant type, provided that genetic variability is present in the original strains. Another method of improvement is the crossing together of inbred lines to produce HETEROSIS in the hybrids (see GREEN REVOLUTION). Plant breeding has lead to a great improvement in crop yield, better harvesting (e.g. with dwarf varieties) and improvements in the natural resistance of plants to pathogens. Recently, cell and tissue cultures using EXPLANTS have begun to be used by plant breeders, to produce
  1. (a) multiple copies (CLONES) of sterile types;
  2. (b) the development of forms with new chromosome combinations;
  3. (c) HAPLOIDS (2) which can be induced to become fertile DIPLOIDS (2) (the latter forming PURE BREEDING LINES).
References in periodicals archive ?
Variable weather is creating extreme challenges for crop breeding in California.
David Shaw added: "Working with Katherine Steele has allowed us to tap into her cutting-edge, crop breeding skills.
To fill that order, Porter teamed with several experts in pulse crop breeding and legume genetics--namely Kevin McPhee and Shalu Jain at North Dakota State University-Fargo, Norman Weeden at Montana State University-Bozeman, and Sanford Eigenbrode at the University of Idaho-Moscow.
Publicly-funded crop breeding programs supported by AGRA since 2007 have released 464 new varieties of 15 important crop species developed for specific African climates and soils.
The hybrids were provided by the Crop Breeding Institute at the Harare Research Station.
At present, we have cooperated in seven fields and launched two pilot projects, including major crop breeding, rural informatization, TB-drugs and polio vaccines, and Green Super Rice," Zhang said.
Crop breeding technology company Chromatin Inc and Pacific Ethanol Inc (NasdaqCM:PEIX), a producer of low-carbon renewable fuels in the Western US, on Monday jointly signed an agreement to produce, deliver and use locally grown sorghum in the production of ethanol.
DNA markers have proved valuable in crop breeding, especially in studies on genetic diversity and gene mapping.
Also, the committee noted the focus should be on "how to adequately raise productivity to meet the world food needs, rather than get distracted by historic disputes, such as biotechnology versus traditional crop breeding, organic farming versus conventional farming, or food versus fuel production.
This would involve, for example, improving access to seeds, fertilizer, and other inputs, increasing investment in crop breeding and livestock research and enhancing access to markets by strengthening rural infrastructure.
Mycorrhiza formation in mutant roots was disrupted in both systems, indicating that crop breeding efforts that affect root auxin relations may inadvertantly cause disruptions in this agriculturally important symbiosis.