qigong(redirected from Criticism of Qi gong)
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Qigong (pronounced "chee-gung," also spelled chi kung) is translated from the Chinese to mean "energy cultivation" or "working with the life energy." Qigong is an ancient Chinese system of postures, exercises, breathing techniques, and meditations. Its techniques are designed to improve and enhance the body's qi. According to traditional Chinese philosophy, qi is the fundamental life energy responsible for health and vitality.
Qigong may be used as a daily routine to increase overall health and well-being, as well as for disease prevention and longevity. It can be used to increase energy and reduce stress. In China, qigong is used in conjunction with other medical therapies for many chronic conditions, including asthma, allergies, AIDS, cancer, headaches, hypertension, depression, mental illness, strokes, heart disease, and obesity.
Qigong is presently being used in Hong Kong to relieve depression and improve the overall psychological and social well-being of elderly people with chronic physical illnesses.
Qigong originated before recorded history. Scholars estimate qigong to be as old as 5,000-7,000 years old. Tracing the exact historical development of qigong is difficult, because it was passed down in secrecy among monks and teachers for many generations. Qigong survived through many years before paper was invented, and it also survived the Cultural Revolutions in China of the 1960s and 1970s, which banned many traditional practices.
Qigong has influenced and been influenced by many of the major strands of Chinese philosophy. The Taoist philosophy states that the universe operates within laws of balance and harmony, and that people must live within the rhythms of nature—ideas that pervade qigong. When Buddhism was brought from India to China around the seventh century A.D., yoga techniques and concepts of mental and spiritual awareness were introduced to qigong masters. The Confucian school was concerned with how people should live their daily lives, a concern of qigong as well. The martial arts were highly influenced by qigong, and many of them, such as t'ai chi and kung fu, developed directly from it. Traditional Chinese medicine also shares many of the central concepts of qigong, such as the patterns of energy flow in the body. Acupuncture and acupressure use the same points on the body that qigong seeks to stimulate. In China, qigong masters have been renowned physicians and healers. Qigong is often prescribed by Chinese physicians as part of the treatment.
Due to the political isolation of China, many Chinese concepts have been shrouded from the Western world. Acupuncture was "discovered" by American doctors only in the 1970s, although it had been in use for thousands of years. With an increased exchange of information, more Americans have gained access to the once-secret teachings of qigong. In 1988, the First World Conference for Academic Exchange of Medical Qigong was held in Beijing, China, where many studies were presented to attendees from around the world. In 1990, Berkeley, California, hosted the First International Congress of Qigong. In the past decade, more Americans have begun to discover the beneficial effects of qigong, which motivate an estimated 60 million Chinese to practice it every day.
In Chinese thought, qi, or chi, is the fundamental life energy of the universe. It is invisible but present in air, water, food and sunlight. In the body, qi is the unseen vital force that sustains life. We are all born with inherited amounts of qi, and we also get acquired qi from the food we eat and the air we breathe. In qigong, the breath is believed to account for the largest quantity of acquired qi, because the body uses air more than any other substance. The balance of our physical, mental, and emotional levels also affect qi levels in the body.
Qi travels through the body along channels called meridians. There are 12 main meridians, corresponding to the 12 principal organs as defined by the traditional Chinese system: the lung, large intestines, stomach, spleen, heart, small intestine, urinary bladder, kidney, liver, gallbladder, pericardium, and the "triple warmer," which represents the entire torso region. Each organ has qi associated with it, and each organ interacts with particular emotions on the mental level. Qigong techniques are designed to improve the balance and flow of energy throughout the meridians, and to increase the overall quantity and volume of qi. In qigong philosophy, mind and body are not separated as they often are in Western medicine. In qigong, the mind is present in all parts of the body, and the mind can be used to move qi throughout the body.
Yin and yang are also important concepts in qigong. The universe and the body can be described by these two separate but complementary principles, which are always interacting, opposing, and influencing each other. One goal of qigong is to balance yin and yang within the body. Strong movements or techniques are balanced by soft ones, leftward movements by rightward, internal techniques by external ones, and so on.
There are thousands of qigong exercises. The specific ones used may vary depending on the teacher, school, and objective of the practitioner. Qigong is used for physical fitness, as a martial art, and most frequently for health and healing. Internal qigong is performed by those wishing to increase their own energy and health. Some qigong masters are renowned for being able to perform external qigong, by which the energy from one person is passed on to another for healing. This transfer may sound suspect to Western logic, but in the world of qigong there are some amazing accounts of healing and extraordinary capabilities demonstrated by qigong masters. Qigong masters generally have deep knowledge of the concepts of Chinese medicine and healing. In China, there are hospitals that use medical qigong to heal patients, along with herbs, acupuncture, and other techniques. In these hospitals, qigong healers use external qigong and also design specific internal qigong exercises for patients' problems.
There are basic components of internal qigong sessions. All sessions require warm-up and concluding exercises. Qigong consists of postures, movements, breathing techniques, and mental exercises. Postures may involve standing, sitting, or lying down. Movements include stretches, slow motions, quick thrusts, jumping, and bending. Postures and movements are designed to strengthen, stretch, and tone the body to improve the flow of energy. One sequence of postures and movements is known as the "Eight Figures for Every Day." This sequence is designed to quickly and effectively work the entire body, and is commonly performed daily by millions in China.
Breathing techniques include deep abdominal breathing, chest breathing, relaxed breathing, and holding breaths. One breathing technique is called the "Six Healing Sounds." This technique uses particular breathing sounds for each of six major organs. These sounds are believed to stimulate and heal the organs.
Meditations and mind exercises are used to enhance the mind and move qi throughout the body. These exercises are often visualizations that focus on different body parts, words, ideas, objects, or energy flowing along the meridians. One mental exercise is called the "Inner Smile," during which the practitioner visualizes joyful, healing energy being sent sequentially to each organ in the body. Another mental exercise is called the "Microscopic Orbit Meditation," in which the practitioner intently meditates on increasing and connecting the flow of qi throughout major channels.
Discipline is an important dimension of qigong. Exercises are meant to be performed every morning and evening. Sessions can take from 15 minutes to hours. Beginners are recommended to practice between 15-30 minutes twice a day. Beginners may take classes once or twice per week, with practice outside of class. Classes generally cost between $10-$20 per session.
Qigong should be practiced in a clean, pleasant environment, preferably outdoors in fresh air. Loose and comfortable clothing is recommended. Jewelry should be removed. Practitioners can prepare for success at qigong by practicing at regular hours each day to promote discipline. Qigong teachers also recommend that students prepare by adopting lifestyles that promote balance, moderation, proper rest, and healthy diets, all of which are facets of qigong practice.
Beginners should learn from an experienced teacher, as performing qigong exercises in the wrong manner may cause harm. Practitioners should not perform qigong on either full or completely empty stomachs. Qigong should not be performed during extreme weather, which may have negative effects on the body's energy systems. Menstruating and pregnant women should perform only certain exercises.
Side effects may occur during or after qigong exercises for beginners, or for those performing exercises incorrectly. Side effects may include dizziness, dry mouth, fatigue, headaches, insomnia, rapid heartbeat, shortness of breath, heaviness or numbness in areas of the body, emotional instability, anxiety, or decreased concentration. Side effects generally clear up with rest and instruction from a knowledgeable teacher.
Research and general acceptance
Western medicine generally does not endorse any of the traditional Chinese healing systems that utilize the concept of energy flow in the body, largely because this energy has yet to be isolated and measured scientifically. New research is being conducted using sophisticated equipment that may verify the existence of energy channels as defined by the Chinese system. Despite the lack of scientific validation, the results of energy techniques including qigong and acupuncture have gained widespread interest and respect. One California group of qigong practitioners now conducts twice-yearly retreats to improve their skills and energy level. Furthermore, qigong masters have demonstrated to Western observers astounding control over many physical functions, and some have even shown the ability to increase electrical voltage measured on their skin's surface. Most of the research and documentation of qigong's effectiveness for medical conditions has been conducted in China, and is slowly becoming more available to English readers. Papers from the World Conferences for Academic Exchange of Medical Qigong are available in English, and address many medical studies and uses of qigong. A video is now available that presents the basic concepts of medical qigong as well as specific exercise prescriptions for the treatment of breast cancer. The exercise prescriptions consist of movements, postures, visualizations, and positive affirmations.
In terms of mainstream research in the United States, the first ongoing long-term study of qigong began in 1999 at the Center for Alternative and Complementary Medicine Research in Heart Disease at the University of Michigan; it focuses on the speed of healing of graft wounds in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) has been funding studies of qigong since 2000. The first such study was conducted by a researcher in Arizona with patients using heart devices (pacemakers, etc.).
The breathing techniques of qigong are being studied intensively by Western physicians as of 2003 as a form of therapy for anxiety-related problems and for disorders involving the vocal cords. Qigong is also being used in the rehabilitation of patients with severe asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Training and certification
In China, qigong has been subject to much government regulation, from banning to increased requirements for teachers. In the United States at this time, qigong has not been regulated. Different schools may provide teacher training, but there are no generally accepted training standards. Qigong teachings may vary, depending on the founder of the school, who is often an acknowledged Chinese master. The organizations listed below can provide further information to consumers.
Pelletier, Kenneth R., MD. The Best Alternative Medicine, Part I: Sound Mind, Sound Body: Qi Gong. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
Baker, S. E., C. M. Sapienza, and S. Collins. "Inspiratory Pressure Threshold Training in a Case of Congenital Bilateral Abductor Vocal Fold Paralysis." International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 67 (April 2003): 413-416.
Biggs, Q. M., K. S. Kelly, and J. D. Toney. "The Effects of Deep Diaphragmatic Breathing and Focused Attention on Dental Anxiety in a Private Practice Setting." Dental Hygiene 77 (Spring 2003): 105-113.
Emerich, K. A. "Nontraditional Tools Helpful in the Treatment of Certain Types of Voice Disturbances." Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery 11 (June 2003): 149-153.
Golden, Jane. "Qigong and Tai Chi as Energy Medicine." Share Guide (November-December 2001): 37.
Johnson, Jerry Alan. "Medical Qigong for Breast Disease." Share Guide (November-December 2001): 109.
Ram, F. S., E. A. Holloway, and P. W. Jones. "Breathing Retraining for Asthma." Respiratory Medicine 97 (May 2003): 501-507.
Tsang, H. W., C. K. Mok, Y. T. Au Yeung, and S. Y. Chan. "The Effect of Qigong on General and Psychosocial Health of Elderly with Chronic Physical Illnesses: A Randomized Clinical Trial." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 18 (May 2003): 441-449.
Chinese National Chi Kung Institute. PO Box 31578. San Francisco, CA 94131. (800) 824-2433.
International Chi Kung/Qi Gong Directory. 2730 29th Street. Boulder, CO 80301. (303) 442-3131.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) Clearinghouse. P.O. Box 7923, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-7923. (888) 644-6226. http://nccam.nih.gov.
Qigong Human Life Research Foundation. PO Box 5327. Cleveland, OH 44101. (216) 475-4712.
Qigong Magazine. PO Box 31578. San Francisco, CA 94131. (800) 824-2433.
Qi: The Journal of Traditional Eastern Health and Fitness. PO Box 221343. Chantilly, VA 22022. (202) 378 3859.
Martial arts — Group of diverse activities originating from the ancient fighting techniques of the Orient.
Meridians — Channels or conduits through which Qi travels in the body.
Qi — Basic life energy, according to traditional Chinese medicine.
Yin/Yang — Universal characteristics used to describe aspects of the natural world.
qigong(1) A Chinese form of self-healing said to stimulate and balance the flow of qi (chi; vital energy) through meridians (energy pathways), which involves contemplation, visualisation (imagery), assumption of postures, and stylised breathing and body movements. Gong is Mandarin for breathing (kung in Cantonese); qigong/chikung variously translates as breathing exercise, to work the vital force, practising with breath, or working with the energy of life. It consists of energy mastering exercises.
(2) The body of ancient Chinese and 20th-century thought which encompasses qigong/chikung therapy/exercise. The exercise is analogous to yoga, and combines movement, meditation and breath regulation as a means of enhancing the flow of qi (chi; the vital life energy) along acupuncture meridians. Qigong has two major components: internal (soft) qigong, in which the qi is manipulated within one’s own body through exercise, and external (hard) qigong, in which the qi is projected to another person. Qigong is believed by its advocates to improve circulation, decrease pulse, respiration rate and oxygen consumption, and enhance immune function; it is believed to be effective in treating hypertension and gastrointestinal complaints (e.g., ulcers, constipation).
qi gong, qigong, chi kung (chē goong) [Chinese qì, breath, air, spirit + gōng, work, practice]
An ancient Chinese approach to healing and an exercise that combines internal energy, movement, breathing exercises, meditation, and relaxation.