Automation platforms with harmonized software and hardware components have in recent years contributed enormously to the standardization and simplification of the evaluation process, especially for ANA, but also antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and Crithidia luciliae
immunofluorescence test (CLIFT).
Electron microscopy analysis of kDNA isolated from Crithidia luciliae
and restriction endonuclease digestion assays led to the identification of kDNA molecules larger than the minicircles, and these long molecules were called "maxicircles" [33, 34].
Regarding serological items included in SLEDAI, the Crithidia luciliae
indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) instead of the proposed Farr assay was used to detect anti-dsDNA antibody binding and nephelometry to measure levels of complement proteins C3 and C4 [2, 20].
 Anti-dsDNA antibodies were measured by the Crithidia luciliae
indirect immunofluorescence test,  which is regarded as a reference method because of high specificity.
Anti-dsDNA was measured semiquantitatively using Fluoro nDNA test (MBL, Japan) that employed Crithidia luciliae
indirect immunofluorescent test (CLIFT) method.
Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were detected using indirect immunofluorescence assay (EUROIMMUN, Lubeck, Germany) and anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies were detected using Crithidia luciliae
indirect immunofluorescence test (EUROIMMUN, Lubeck, Germany).
This first group lacked evidence of renal involvement, tested positive for ANAs (80%) or anti-dsDNA antibodies (Crithidia luciliae
) (7.14%), and showed negative or irrelevant levels of proteinuria (mean level of 0.116 g/L).
IIF on Crithidia luciliae
(Figure 1), RIA, and ELISA is the most commonly used assays to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies.
Como controles positivos y para probar la condicion del anticuerpo secundario se anadieron anticuerpos secundarios marcados con isotiocianato de fluoresceina (FITC) a cortes de tejido renal de rata y a laminas de Crithidia luciliae
(Kallestad, USA), que habian sido previamente enfrentados al suero de un paciente con diagnostico establecido de lupus eritematoso sistemico, positivo para anticuerpos antinucleares y anti-ADN.
For this analysis, the reference ranges of C3 and C4 from The Ohio State University Clinical Laboratory were used to identify the lower limits of normal, and the presence or absence of ADNA was determined by a Crithidia luciliae
Three clinical laboratory methods are commonly used for the determination and quantification of anti-dsDNA: Crithidia luciliae
indirect immunofluorescence, ELISA, and RIA (the Farr assay).