Automation platforms with harmonized software and hardware components have in recent years contributed enormously to the standardization and simplification of the evaluation process, especially for ANA, but also antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and Crithidia
luciliae immunofluorescence test (CLIFT).
Enzyme D-isomer specific 2-hydro xyacid dehydrogenase, whose expression levels was altered only in the Bolivia strain (Table 3, spot 3), was one of the proteins identified in the present work This enzyme is responsible to catalyze the NAD-dependent oxidation of R-lactate to pyruvate and is part of the detoxification pathway of methylglyoxal (dependent of glyoxalase I, glyoxalase II and low molecular mass thiols) in trypanosomatids, and data from Trypanosoma conorhini and Crithidia
fasciculata showed activation in the presence of cysteine.
The nectar alkaloid anabasine was found to strongly decrease Crithidia
bombi Leger parasite loads when its bumble bee host, B.
This family of flagellate protozoa comprises species of several genera (Crithidia
, Angomonas, Strigomonas, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and others).
Other positive antibodies include extractable nuclear antibody, crithidia
antidouble-stranded antibody, and anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies.
Measurement of the dsDNA antibodies was done using the Crithidia
lucilia immunofluorescence testing.
DNAds as an antigen is not included as ENA by some authors, because the anti-DNA test is commonly performed with another methodology (IIF with Crithidia
as antigen), but in this study it was named as ENA, once the sera of patients were tested together with the other ENA antigens by immunoblot method.
Regarding serological items included in SLEDAI, the Crithidia
luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test (CLIFT) instead of the proposed Farr assay was used to detect anti-dsDNA antibody binding and nephelometry to measure levels of complement proteins C3 and C4 [2, 20].
 Anti-dsDNA antibodies were measured by the Crithidia
luciliae indirect immunofluorescence test,  which is regarded as a reference method because of high specificity.
Anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluorescence using Crithidia
as substrate and were considered positive if they were higher than 1:10.
After MNPs were incorporated into Crithidia
fasciculate, Grazu et al.