Evaluating the interaction between platyceratid gastropods and crinoids
: a cost-benefit approach.
Nervous system development of two crinoid
species, the sea lily Metacrinus rotundus and the feather star Oxycomanlhus japonicus.
Although the presence of encrusting organisms offers little in terms of taxonomic information related to crinoids
, encrustation represents an important paleoecological and taphonomic phenomenon, and one of the most useful indicators of paleoenvironmental parameters (Brett and Baird 1986; Parsons and Brett 1991).
In either case, fossilized bivalves, crinoid
fragments, gastropods, shark teeth, sea urchin spines, fish bones, coral, fossilized traces (tracks, burrows, etc.) and other marine fossils may be identified.
This facies is bioclastic grainstone and consists of brachiopod shells, bryozoans, ostracods, gastropods, crinoids
and mollusks (Fig.
and Sebek, O.: 1997, Chemical composition of the crinoid
skeletal remains (Echinodermata) in weathered limestones of the Bohemian Lower Devonian (Barrandian area).
were abundant long ago, when they carpeted the sea floor.
are a bunch of marine invertebrates, known for their "somewhat cup-shaped body and five or more flexible and active arms" with feather-like appendages, (https://www.britannica.com/animal/crinoid) Encyclopaedia Britannica explains .
Then there are the fossils found here: gastropods and cephalopods, crinoids
and bryozoans, worm holes and tracks.
Fossils of crinoids
from Crawfordsville, Indiana are known worldwide for their abundance, completeness, and large size.
The author and David Harper (now a professor at Durham University) have collaborated since 1987 on a research program on Antillean brachiopods and crinoids
in deep-water sedimentary deposits.
Many sea creatures, such as sea lilies (crinoids
), brachiopods and bivalves, had a hard outer skeleton (exoskeleton) of calcium carbonate.