Electronic pacing of reinnervated posterior cricoarytenoid muscles in the canine," Laryngoscope, vol.
In our future experiment, lateral cricoarytenoid muscle or arytenoid muscle would be stimulated to generate adduction of paralyzed vocal fold.
1) Laryngeal electromyography must show increased muscle discharge of the thyroarytenoid or posterior cricoarytenoid muscles at the affected pitch(es).
Eller et al., "The Innervation of the Posterior Cricoarytenoid Muscle: Exploring Clinical Possibilities," Journal of Voice 23, no.
There even exists a "NG tube syndrome" (5), the pathophysiological mechanism of which is thought to be paresis of the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
secondary to ulceration and infection over the posterior lamina of the cricoid.
At this appointment, she had both sides injected with 1.75 units of Botox, into the cricoarytenoid muscles
, and she began speaking in a normal voice (which lasted about six months) after a breathy period of about three weeks.The next treatment was with 1.5 units of Botox (less than the previous dose) injection on each side.
The muscular process is the insertion point of the posterior and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
. The posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
is the single abductor t of the vocal fold, and the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle
s contributes to adduction in concert with the action of the thyroarytenoid muscle.
(6,9,12,13) A typical finding is symmetric high uptake at the muscle origin and insertion of the arytenoid cartilage, posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
, and some less intense uptake along the course of thyroarytenoid and vocalis muscle (11) (Figure 1).
These researchers suggested, "the cricothyroid muscle regulates a steady pitch level, and that the vocalis and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
modulate this pitch level and add changes to the perceived tone quality." (32) During the production of high pitches, the cricothyroid muscle seems to contribute most; the sternothyroid muscle contributes more to low pitch control.
 This is in contrast to other evidence that suggests that fast-twitch fibers in the thyroarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
are reinnervated more rapidly and to a greater degree than slow-twitch fibers.
High CQ requires increased glottal adduction, which might correspond to stronger contraction of the interarytenoid and lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
, as well as increased medial compression from activity in the thyroarytenoids.
If the recurrent laryngeal nerve is injured at its insertion into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle
, the vocal fold will have problems with abduction.