CDS

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chondroitin

(konn-droy-tinn) ,

chondroitin polysulfate

(trade name),

CPS

(trade name),

CDS

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: nonopioid analgesics
OsteoarthritisIschemic heart diseaseHyperlipidemiaOsteoporosis Ophthalmic: In combination with sodium hyaluronate, for use as a surgical aid in cataract extraction or lens implantation, and as a lubricant

Action

May serve as a building block of articular cartilage. May protect cartilage against degradation. May have antiatherogenic properties.

Therapeutic effects

Improvement in osteoarthritis symptoms.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: 8–18% is absorbed orally.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Asthma (may exacerbate symptoms); Clotting disorders (may ↑ risk of bleeding); Prostate cancer (may ↑ risk of metastasis or recurrence).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Gastrointestinal

  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • diarrhea

Hematologic

  • bleeding (antiplatelet effect)

Miscellaneous

  • allergic reactions
  • edema
  • hair loss

Interactions

Use of chondroitin with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, thrombolytics, NSAIDs, some cephalosporins, and valproates may ↑ risk of bleeding.Herbs with anticoagulant or antiplatelet properties may ↑ bleeding risk when combined with chondroitin, including: anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, dong quai, fenugreek, feverfew, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, licorice, and others.
Oral (Adults) Osteoarthritis—200–400 mg 2–3 times daily or 1000–1200 mg once daily. Prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction—10 grams daily in 3 divided doses for 3 mo followed by 1.5 grams daily in 3 divided doses as maintenance therapy.
Intramuscular (Adults) Osteoarthritis—50 mg twice weekly for 8 weeks every 4 mo.

Availability

Tablets: OTC
Capsules: OTC
Injection (not available in US):
Ophthalmic Drops Rx in combination with sodium hyaluronate (Viscoat):

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Evaluate drug profile before starting therapy with this herbal supplement. If the patient is taking anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs, avoid use of this herb.
  • Monitor pain (type, location and intensity) and range of motion on an ongoing basis as an indicator of drug efficacy.
  • Evaluate gastric discomfort and instruct patient to seek out the advice of a health care professional if persistent gastric discomfort occurs.
  • Assess for signs of bleeding and discontinue herbal supplement promptly and seek out healthcare professional for follow up.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Chronic pain (Indications)
Impaired physical mobility (Indications)

Implementation

  • Administer with food.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Advise patients that this herbal supplement is usually taken with glucosamine.
  • Caution patients who take aspirin or NSAIDs or other nonprescription medications not to take this herbal supplement without conferring with their health care professional.
  • Advise female patients to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding; avoid use.
  • Instruct patients that this medication works by building up cartilage and that this requires that the medication be taken consistently over a period of time. It is not recommended as a supplemental pain medication.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Improvement in pain and range of motion.
  • Reduced need for supplemental or breakthrough pain medication.

CDS

Abbreviation for:
Carroll Depression scales
chemical (drug) delivery system
clonidine displacing substance
coding sequence
Commissioning Data Set, see there (Medspeak-UK)
community dental service (Medspeak-UK)
compliance data system
contract data set (Medspeak-UK)
controlled drug substance, see there

CDS

Controlled Drug Substance, see there.
References in periodicals archive ?
When the buyer of a credit default swap also owns the investment on which the instrument is based, the swap operates as insurance.
31) Effectively, investors pay third parties monthly premiums or up-front payments with the hope that a credit event befalls the debt instrument, leaving the investor with a large payout from his credit default swap.
Credit default swaps separate the risk of loss that a creditor faces upon entering into a debt investment and redistributes the risk among the creditor and its credit default swap counterparties.
Bankers didn't see it that way because they shared AIG's expectation that few of these credit default swaps would ever come due.
Credit default swaps were more like regulatory compliance policies than insurance policies.
AIG sold banks credit default swaps covering bonds worth hundreds of billions of dollars for precisely this regulatory reason.
NEW YORK -- The idea that the industry lacks a central registry for over-the-counter (OTC) credit default swaps (CDS) is grossly misleading and has resulted in inaccurate speculation on a number of matters, including the overall size of the market, its role in the mortgage crisis, and the size of potential payment obligations under credit default swaps relating to Lehman Brothers.
Credit default swaps are essentially insurance policies used to hedge risky bonds.
Although the worldwide market for credit default swaps is huge at $27 trillion, it has shrunk by more than 50 percent in the past year, and is too small--and the number of participating institutions is too small--for a clearinghouse that deals only in CDS to efficiently reduce counterparty risk, says Duffie.
Centerbrook continues to build its book of business, having completed close to $1 billion of credit default swaps in our first two months of operations," said Robert D.
Centerbrook Financial LLC ("Centerbrook") is a provider of credit intermediation products, including credit default swaps, to the affordable housing finance industry.
Concurrently with the launch, Centerbrook completed its first transaction, providing a pool of credit default swaps in connection with the re-securitization of $820 million of CharterMac's existing multifamily revenue bonds.

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