CDS

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chondroitin

(konn-droy-tinn) ,

chondroitin polysulfate

(trade name),

CPS

(trade name),

CDS

(trade name)

Classification

Therapeutic: nonopioid analgesics
OsteoarthritisIschemic heart diseaseHyperlipidemiaOsteoporosis Ophthalmic: In combination with sodium hyaluronate, for use as a surgical aid in cataract extraction or lens implantation, and as a lubricant

Action

May serve as a building block of articular cartilage. May protect cartilage against degradation. May have antiatherogenic properties.

Therapeutic effects

Improvement in osteoarthritis symptoms.

Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: 8–18% is absorbed orally.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

ROUTEONSETPEAKDURATION
POunknownunknownunknown

Contraindications/Precautions

Contraindicated in: Obstetric: Pregnancy and lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Asthma (may exacerbate symptoms); Clotting disorders (may ↑ risk of bleeding); Prostate cancer (may ↑ risk of metastasis or recurrence).

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Gastrointestinal

  • heartburn
  • nausea
  • diarrhea

Hematologic

  • bleeding (antiplatelet effect)

Miscellaneous

  • allergic reactions
  • edema
  • hair loss

Interactions

Use of chondroitin with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs, thrombolytics, NSAIDs, some cephalosporins, and valproates may ↑ risk of bleeding.Herbs with anticoagulant or antiplatelet properties may ↑ bleeding risk when combined with chondroitin, including: anise, arnica, chamomile, clove, dong quai, fenugreek, feverfew, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, licorice, and others.
Oral (Adults) Osteoarthritis—200–400 mg 2–3 times daily or 1000–1200 mg once daily. Prevention of recurrent myocardial infarction—10 grams daily in 3 divided doses for 3 mo followed by 1.5 grams daily in 3 divided doses as maintenance therapy.
Intramuscular (Adults) Osteoarthritis—50 mg twice weekly for 8 weeks every 4 mo.

Availability

Tablets: OTC
Capsules: OTC
Injection (not available in US):
Ophthalmic Drops Rx in combination with sodium hyaluronate (Viscoat):

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Evaluate drug profile before starting therapy with this herbal supplement. If the patient is taking anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs, avoid use of this herb.
  • Monitor pain (type, location and intensity) and range of motion on an ongoing basis as an indicator of drug efficacy.
  • Evaluate gastric discomfort and instruct patient to seek out the advice of a health care professional if persistent gastric discomfort occurs.
  • Assess for signs of bleeding and discontinue herbal supplement promptly and seek out healthcare professional for follow up.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Chronic pain (Indications)
Impaired physical mobility (Indications)

Implementation

  • Administer with food.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Advise patients that this herbal supplement is usually taken with glucosamine.
  • Caution patients who take aspirin or NSAIDs or other nonprescription medications not to take this herbal supplement without conferring with their health care professional.
  • Advise female patients to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding; avoid use.
  • Instruct patients that this medication works by building up cartilage and that this requires that the medication be taken consistently over a period of time. It is not recommended as a supplemental pain medication.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Improvement in pain and range of motion.
  • Reduced need for supplemental or breakthrough pain medication.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners

CDS

Abbreviation for:
Carroll Depression scales
chemical (drug) delivery system
clonidine displacing substance
coding sequence
Commissioning Data Set, see there (Medspeak-UK)
community dental service (Medspeak-UK)
compliance data system
contract data set (Medspeak-UK)
controlled drug substance, see there
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

CDS

Controlled Drug Substance, see there.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
First, credit default swaps allow investors and creditors to hedge against risk by permitting them to "offset[] their exposure to the risk of loss that is inherent in lending arrangements such as credit facilities or the acquisition of debt securities." (34) More specifically: Credit default swaps separate the risk of loss that a creditor faces upon entering into a debt investment and redistributes the risk among the creditor and its credit default swap counterparties.
Several tradable indexes now exist for different categories of credit default swaps (for example, Markit Group's CDX index).
Credit raters, however, had little experience with credit default swaps at the "systemic failure" tail of the probability distribution.
To insure against this possibility, the investor can buy a credit default swap on the underlying bonds.
Instead, credit default swaps came to be used by banks in a way that no one anticipated--to avoid banking regulations.
The second category of "swaps" are known as "naked credit default swaps" and describe a situation in which neither party to the swap owns the bond, note or other obligation that underlies the swap.
The vast majority of credit derivatives are actually known as credit default swaps, and I think it might help if I give you a simple example.
Some investment bankers contended that credit default swaps and loan commitments were similar instruments and that credit default swap prices could provide information about the appropriateness of prices for loan commitments.
16 March 2016 - UK-based financial information services company Markit (NASDAQ: MRKT) has acquired the credit default swap pricing service of US-based financial information provider Fitch Solutions, the company said.
The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) in India has decided to allow the use of Credit Default Swap (CDS) to insurance companies to help them hedge their risk.
Summary: Credit default swap, or CDS, spreads in Abu Dhabi have dramatically narrowed since May 2012, from 142 to 99, signifying an increasing investor confidence on the back on diminishing sovereign risk.
There are six main categories of derivatives: foreign exchange, interest rate, equity, commodity, credit default swap, and other.

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