cranial nerves


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cranial

 [kra´ne-al]
pertaining to the cranium or to the head end of the body; in humans, a synonym of superior.
cranial nerves nerves that are attached to the brain and pass through the openings of the skull; see anatomic Table of Nerves in the Appendices. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves, symmetrically arranged so that they are distributed mainly to the structures of the head and neck. The one exception is the vagus nerve, which extends down to serve structures in the chest and abdomen. Some of the cranial nerves are both sensory and motor (controlling motion as well as conducting sensory impulses), while others are either only sensory or only motor.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

cra·ni·al nerves

[TA]
those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII] nerves.
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Those nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium or skull, in contrast to the spinal nerves, which emerge from the spine or vertebral column. The twelve paired cranial nerves are the olfactory, optic, oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducent, facial, vestibulocochlear, glossopharyngeal, vagal, accessory, and hypoglossal nerves.
See also: Brodmann areas
Synonym(s): nervi craniales [TA] .
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

cranial nerves

The 12 pairs of nerves which spring directly from the brain and brain stem. They include the nerves for smell, sight, eye movement, facial movement and sensation, hearing, taste and head movement.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Cranial nerves

The set of twelve nerves found on each side of the head and neck that control the sensory and muscle functions of a number of organs such as the eyes, nose, tongue face and throat.
Mentioned in: Acoustic Neuroma
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cra·ni·al nerves

(krā'nē-ăl nĕrvz) [TA]
Nerves that emerge from, or enter, the cranium. The 12 paired cranial nerves are the olfactory [CN I], optic [CN II], oculomotor [CN III], trochlear [CN IV], trigeminal [CN V], abducent [CN VI], facial [CN VII], vestibulocochlear [CN VIII], glossopharyngeal [CN IX], vagal [CN X], accessory [CN XI], and hypoglossal [CN XII].
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Imaging the cranial nerves. Veterinary radiology & ultrasound : the official journal of the American College of Veterinary Radiology and the International Veterinary Radiology Association.; 52(1 Suppl 1):S32-41 (2011).
Basal fracture of the skull and lower (IX, X, XI, XII) cranial nerves palsy: four case reports including two fractures of the occipital condyle--a literature review.
Erythematous ear lesions and unilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy are seen in typical RHS and VIIIth cranial nerve impairment frequently accompanies (1) the clinical picture.
Isolated bilateral hypoglossal nerve palsy is extremely rare cranial nerve palsy secondary to pyogenic meningitis.
Further, Zika virus RT-PCR results were only available for cranial nerve VII, 3 sections of sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and cauda equina.
To study the demography, the clinical localisations, the radiological findings, the various aetiological factors and clinicoradiological manifestations in patients with nuclear and infranuclear lesions of cranial nerves 3, 4 and 6.
Caption: The NSS-2 BRIDGE is a percutaneous nerve field stimulator that can be used as an aid to reduce the symptoms of opioid withdrawal, through application to branches of cranial nerves V, VII, and IX, as well as branches of the occipita.
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and contrast-enhanced MRI of the temporal bone revealed no pathologic finding in the brain parenchyma and cranial nerves. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46, XX karyotype.
* Cranial nerves IX to XII, symphathetic chain: neurogenic tumor, neuroblastoma, paraganglioma (Figure 9).
The paralysis of the sixth and seventh cranial nerve and the involvement of other cranial nerves do not allow the establishment of a normal temporomandibular joint function leading to a reduction in the movements of maximum opening, protrusion, and laterality [15].
Cranial neuritis most commonly involves the seventh cranial nerve but can also involve cranial nerves involved in extraocular eye movements, hearing, and sensation of the face [6].
Much rarer primary tumors are schwannomas of other cranial nerves: of the trigeminal nerve, of the facial nerve, or of the caudal cranial nerves; paragangliomas, chordomas, chordosarcomas, arachnoid or neurenteric cysts, dermoid tumors, and metastases5.