[T.sub.2] weighted (T2W), proton- density and multi-echo fast field echo (m-FFE) gives better details of the cranial nerve nuclei
and fascicular segment of cranial nerves.
The correct position of the electrode is identified by detecting electric stimuli in the auditory pathways instead of adjacent cranial nerve nuclei
or sensory/motor tracts (extra-auditory stimulation).
However, the MRI was distinctly abnormal with focal lesion in the cranial nerve nuclei
(in those with bulbar dysfunction) and/or in the anterior horn or spinal cord gray matter.
Brain stem contains all cranial nerve nuclei
and many afferent fibre tracts that connect the brain with the rest of the body.
Two main theories explain the disease to be due to an interruption in the vascular supply of the brainstem resulting in ischemia in the region of the facial cranial nerve nuclei
owing to an environmental, mechanical, or a genetic cause [3-5] or an embryological developmental defect in the rhombomere segments including the facial cranial nerve nuclei
These adverse events may be due to genetic factors, vascular events, and teratogenic insults which cause aplasia or hypoplasia of the cranial nerve nuclei
, nuclear agenesis, and aplasia or hypoplasia of the facial nerve.