craniosacral therapy

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Related to Cranial Sacral therapy: Cranial osteopathy, Cranial nerves

Craniosacral Therapy



Craniosacral therapy is a holistic healing practice that uses very light touching to balance the craniosacral system in the body, which includes the bones, nerves, fluids, and connective tissues of the cranium and spinal area.


According to Dr. John Upledger, craniosacral therapy is ideally suited for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, headaches, chronic middle ear infection, pain, and general health maintenance. It is recommended for autism, fibromyalgia, heart disease, osteoarthritis, pneumonia, rheumatoid arthritis, chronic sinus infections, and gastroenteritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach or small intestine). It is also used with other therapies to treat chronic fatigue syndrome, back pain, and menstrual irregularity. In addition, other craniosacral practitioners have reported benefits for eye dysfunction, dyslexia, depression, motor coordination difficulties, temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD), hyperactivity, colic, asthma in babies, floppy baby syndrome, whiplash, cerebral palsy, certain birth defects, and other central nervous system disorders.



The first written reference to the movement of the spinal nerves and its importance in life, clarity, and "bringing quiet to the heart" is found in a 4,000-year-old text from China. Craniosacral work was referred to as "the art of listening." Bone setters in the Middle Ages also sensed the subtle movements of the body. They used these movements to help reset fractures and dislocations and to treat headaches.
In the early 1900s, the research of Dr. William Sutherland, an American osteopathic physician, detailed the movement of the cranium and pelvis. Before his research it was believed that the cranium was a solid immovable mass. Sutherland reported that the skull is actually made up of 22 separate and movable bones that are connected by layers of tissue. He called his work cranial osteopathy. Nephi Cotton, an American chiropractor and contemporary of Sutherland, called this approach craniology. The graduates of these two disciplines have refined and enhanced these original approaches and renamed their work as sacro-occipital technique, cranial movement therapy, or craniosacral therapy.
Dr. John Upledger, an osteopathic physician, and others at the Department of Biomechanics at Michigan State University, College of Osteopathic Medicine learned of Sutherland's research and developed it further. He researched the clinical observations of various osteopathic physicians. This research provided the basis for Upledger's work that he named craniosacral therapy.
Craniosacral therapy addresses the craniosacral system. This system includes the cranium, spine, and sacrum that are connected by a continuous membrane of connective tissue deep inside the body, called the dura mater. The dura mater also encloses the brain and the central nervous system. Sutherland noticed that cerebral spinal fluid rises and falls within the compartment of the dura mata. He called this movement the primary respiratory impulse; today it is known as the craniosacral rhythm (CSR) or the cranial wave.
Craniosacral therapists can most easily feel the CSR in the body by lightly touching the base of the skull or the sacrum. During a session, they feel for disturbances in the rate, amplitude, symmetry, and quality of flow of the CSR. A therapist uses very gentle touch to balance the flow of the CSR. Once the cerebrospinal fluid moves freely, the body's natural healing responses can function.
A craniosacral session generally lasts 30-90 minutes. The client remains fully clothed and lays down on a massage table while the therapist gently assesses the flow of the CSR. Upledger describes several techniques which may be used in a craniosacral therapy session. The first is energy cyst release. According to Upledger, "This technique is a hands-on method of releasing foreign or disruptive energies from the patient's body. Energy cysts may cause the disruption of the tissues and organs where they are located." The therapist feels these cysts in the client's body and gently releases the blockage of energy.
Sutherland first wrote about a second practice called direction of energy. In this technique the therapist intends energy to pass from one of his hands, through the patient, into the other hand.
The third technique is called myofascial release. This is a manipulative form of bodywork that releases tension in the fascia or connective tissue of the body. This form of bodywork uses stronger touch.
Upledger's fourth technique is position of release. This involves following the client's body into the positions in which an injury occurred and holding it there. When the rhythm of the CSR suddenly stops the therapist knows that the trauma has been released.
The last technique is somatoemotional release. This technique was developed by Upledger and is an offshoot of craniosacral therapy. It is used to release the mind and body of the residual effects of trauma and injury that are "locked in the tissues."
The cost of a session varies due to the length of time needed and the qualifications of the therapist. The cost may be covered by insurance when the therapy is performed or prescribed by a licensed health care provider.


This gentle approach is extremely safe in most cases. However, craniosacral therapy is not recommended in cases of acute systemic infections, recent skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage or aneurysm, or herniation of the medulla oblongata (brain stem). Craniosacral therapy does not preclude the use of other medical approaches.

Side effects

Some people may experience mild discomfort after a treatment. This may be due to re-experiencing a trauma or injury or a previously numb area may come back to life and be more sensitive. These side effects are temporary.

Research and general acceptance

More than 40 scientific papers have been published that document the various effects of craniosacral therapy. There are also 10 authoritative textbooks on this therapy. The most notable scientific papers include Viola M. Fryman's work documenting the successful treatment of 1,250 newborn children with birth defects. Edna Lay and Stephen Blood showed the effects on TMD, and John Wood documented results with psychiatric disorders. The American Dental Association has found craniosacral therapy to be an effective adjunct to orthodontic work. However, the conventional medical community has not endorsed these techniques.



Upledger, John E. "CranioSacral Therapy." In Clinician's Complete Reference to Complementary and Alternative Medicine, edited by Donald Novey. C.V. Moskey, St. Louis: 2000.


Milne Institute Inc. P.O. Box 2716, Monterey, CA 93942-2716. (831) 649-1825. Fax: (831) 649-1826.
Upledger Institute. 11211 Prosperity Farms Road, Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33410. (800) 233-5880. Fax: (561) 622-4771.


Milne, Hugh. A Client's Introduction to Craniosacral Work. Pamphlet. Milne Institute.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

craniosacral therapy

A treatment in alternative medicine that identifies and reduces perceived restrictions in movement of the dural sheath and in the flow of cerebrospinal fluid as a means of restoring well-being.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

CranioSacral Therapy™

Alternative medicine
A proprietary form of therapeutic manipulation developed in the 1970s by Dr JE Upledger, which is soft tissue, fluid, membrane, and energy oriented, thus allegedly more subtle than any other type of cranial work; this method contrasts with bone-oriented cranial osteopathy, which was developed by Dr William G Sutherland (1873–1954). According to Upledger, cerebrospinal fluid circulation in the craniosacral system can be sensed in a fashion similar to that of the peripheral pulse; CranioSacral Therapy™ consists of light touch over the various points of pulsation, which serves to re-establish a normal symmetrical pulse of the cerebrospinal fluid and more efficient functioning of the nervous system. Upledger claimed success in treating chronic pain, cerebral dysfunction, depression, dyslexia, learning disabilities, Ménière’s disease, migraines, spasticity of cerebral palsy, strabismus and other conditions.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

cra·ni·o·sac·ral ther·a·py

(CST) (krā'nē-ō-sā'krăl thār'ă-pē)
A bodywork modality that focuses on identifying and resolving restrictions in the dural sheath that are said to cause restrictions in fascia throughout the body. Practitioners perform therapy by means of palpating and influencing the rhythmic movements of cerebrospinal fluid.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012
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