COX-2 inhibitor

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COX-2 inhibitor

A drug class that relieves inflammation and pain by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase-2.

Prostanoids that mediate inflammation, pain, and fever are synthesized through the action of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that is constitutively expressed in the brain but can be induced in other tissues by cytokines. In both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, COX-2 inhibitors have been shown to be superior in pain relief to acetaminophen and placebo, and equivalent to nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen and naproxen. In rheumatoid arthritis, COX-2 inhibitors are not disease-modifying drugs. Because nonselective NSAIDs inhibit not only COX-2 but also inhibit COX-1, which plays a role in platelet aggregation and gastric mucosal protection, their use is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding than that of selective COX-2 inhibitors. Like NSAIDs, however, the selective agents can cause liver and kidney toxicity, fluid retention, and hypertension. One of them (rofecoxib) was withdrawn by the manufacturer after 5 years on the market because of an unacceptably high incidence of heart attack and thrombotic stroke in patients receiving it for 18 months or more. For these reasons and because they are more expensive than NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors are indicated chiefly in patients who are at increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

COX-2 inhibitor

n.
Any of a class of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that selectively block prostaglandin formation so as to cause minimal gastrointestinal side effects.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

COX-2 inhibitor

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor Pain management A class of analgesics with fewer side effects than those of conventional NSAIDs–which inhibit both cyclooxygenases–COX-1 and COX-2; COX-1 protects the gastric mucosa, preventing ulcers, bleeding, and other digestive tract problems. See COX-2, Prostaglandin.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

COX-2 in·hib·i·tor

(in-hibi-tŏr)
A drug class that relieves inflammation and pain by inhibiting the action of cyclooxygenase-2.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Meta-analyses, largely focused on investigator-reported changes in BP of the agents classified as coxibs, support the idea of some heterogeneity between agents.
Los factores de riesgo mas importantes son la edad, antecedente de ulcera o hemorragia digestiva previa, la asociacion con anticoagulantes, la combinacion de agentes antiplaquetarios, el aumento de la dosis de AAS y la asociacion con otros AINES no selectivos o con COXIBS (31).
It is thought that the selective inhibition of COX-2 by coxibs results in a relative reduction in endothelial PGI2 synthesis, leaving platelet production of Tx[A.sub.2], intact.
(17.) Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists' (CNT) Collaboration, Bhala N, Emberson J, Merhi A, Abramson S, Arber N, Baron JA, et al.
Coxib and Traditional NSAID Trialists' (CNT) Collaboration, Bhala, N., Emberson, J., Merhi, A., Abramson, S., Arber, N., Baron, J.A., ...
There was, however, a lot of adverse publicity about the coxibs, he noted, and patients who had been happy on an nsNSAID might not have been happy with the switch.
Low-dose aspirin was synergistic with antithrombotic agents and corticosteroids, while coxibs were synergistic with low-dose aspirin and SSRIs.
What's more, as with new drugs, previously undetermined risks may emerge down the line with conventional coxibs. It is therefore imperative that further research be done to determine if conventional coxibs are reliable enough to replace traditional NSAIDs as first-line agents.
The original meta-analysis was published in the Lancet in 2013 and found that coxibs or diclofenac conferred increased risk for major vascular events, and ibuprofen showed increased risk for coronary events, relative to placebo.
Moodley, "Review of the cardiovascular safety of COXIBs compared to NSAIDS," Cardiovascular Journal of Africa, vol.