Abbreviations ABTS: 2,2,-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt AR: Aldose reductase n-BuOH: n-Butanol [CH.sub.2][Cl.sub.2]: Methylene chloride DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide EtOAc: Ethyl acetate n-Hex: n-Hexane [H.sub.2]O: Distilled water HSCCC: High-speed countercurrent chromatography
K: Partition coefficient MA: Maackia amurensis NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide RLAR: Rat lens aldose reductase SAR: Structure activity relationship TEAC: Evaluation of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity Trolox: 6-Hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetrame-thylchroman-2 carboxylic acid.
In a short abstract of the topic, Winterhalter wrote: "One of the few liquid chromatographic techniques that can be predictably scaled up from analytical to process scale is countercurrent chromatography
"Recently, I examined it with countercurrent chromatography
[CCC] and solved the problem nicely."
Furthermore, the need for high-throughput and high-efficiency enantioseparation has led to the advancement of chiral screening techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) [24, 25] and high-speed countercurrent chromatography
(HSCCC) [26, 27].
Although punicalagin has not been synthesized yet, the successful preparative separation of punicalagin from crude ethanol extract of pomegranate by high-speed countercurrent chromatography
has been described in reported paper, in which 105 mg of punicalagin was separated from about a 350 mg amount of the crude extract with high purity (Lu et al.
Further examples of topics presented include separation of alkaloids by countercurrent chromatography
, application of capillary electrochromatography to biopolymers and pharmaceuticals, concentration of dilute colloidal samples by field- flow fractionation, laser-induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis, mass transfer between phases, molecularly imprinted polymers for affinity chromatography, metal-ion enrichment by countercurrent chromatography
, photodiode-array detection, rotation locular countercurrent chromatography
, quantitation by external and internal standards, systematic selection of solvent systems for high speed countercurrent chromatography
, and cold wall effects in thermal field-flow fractionation.