countercurrent distribution

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count·er·cur·rent dis·tri·bu·tion

a method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions; a form of liquid-liquid chromatography.
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Abbreviations ABTS: 2,2,-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt AR: Aldose reductase n-BuOH: n-Butanol [CH.sub.2][Cl.sub.2]: Methylene chloride DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide EtOAc: Ethyl acetate n-Hex: n-Hexane [H.sub.2]O: Distilled water HSCCC: High-speed countercurrent chromatography K: Partition coefficient MA: Maackia amurensis NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate NADH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide RLAR: Rat lens aldose reductase SAR: Structure activity relationship TEAC: Evaluation of trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity Trolox: 6-Hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetrame-thylchroman-2 carboxylic acid.
In a short abstract of the topic, Winterhalter wrote: "One of the few liquid chromatographic techniques that can be predictably scaled up from analytical to process scale is countercurrent chromatography (CCC).
"Recently, I examined it with countercurrent chromatography [CCC] and solved the problem nicely."
Furthermore, the need for high-throughput and high-efficiency enantioseparation has led to the advancement of chiral screening techniques, such as supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) [24, 25] and high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) [26, 27].
Although punicalagin has not been synthesized yet, the successful preparative separation of punicalagin from crude ethanol extract of pomegranate by high-speed countercurrent chromatography has been described in reported paper, in which 105 mg of punicalagin was separated from about a 350 mg amount of the crude extract with high purity (Lu et al.
Further examples of topics presented include separation of alkaloids by countercurrent chromatography, application of capillary electrochromatography to biopolymers and pharmaceuticals, concentration of dilute colloidal samples by field- flow fractionation, laser-induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis, mass transfer between phases, molecularly imprinted polymers for affinity chromatography, metal-ion enrichment by countercurrent chromatography, photodiode-array detection, rotation locular countercurrent chromatography, quantitation by external and internal standards, systematic selection of solvent systems for high speed countercurrent chromatography, and cold wall effects in thermal field-flow fractionation.