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The second or other substrate of a multisubstrate enzyme; often, specifically refers to the coenzyme.
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In this model the substrate and cosubstrate penetrate through a permeable electrode to the enzyme layer and then reduce to the form of cosubstrate which diffuses back to the electrode.
Earlier work by us had shown that bioremediation of recalcitrant compounds can be overcome by the use of cosubstrates. For instance, phenol and glucose were shown to enhance the bioremediation of 4-chlorophenol that could not be metabolized as a sole organic substrate by this strain of P.
MMO requires a cosubstrate, NADH, for continuous catalysis of the epoxidation of ethylene.
Caption: Scheme 1: Two categories of posttranslational modifications of proteins: (1) covalent modification of a nucleophilic amino acid side chain by an electrophilic fragment of a cosubstrate and (2) cleavage of a protein backbone at a specific peptide bond.
Inhibition by N-oxalylamino acid derivatives, first developed for use with collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylases, further implies that these hydroxylases are also dependent upon 2OG as a cosubstrate (Cunliffe et al.
Considering the importance of GSH as a cosubstrate for glyoxalase 1 activity, we measured possible changes in GSH content induced by MG (Figure 4).
One plausible explanation is that the burst in [H.sup.2][O.sup.2] induced by UV-C radiation may provide the required cosubstrate for peroxidase-mediated phenolic oxidation [30].
Therefore all further decolorization experiments were performed using MSM broth supplemented with 0.1% (w/v) yeast extract as a cosubstrate. The flasks were inoculated with 5 mL of cultures broth in test and uninoculated controls were used to compare abiotic color loss during the decolorization studies.
The Diazyme enzymatic HCY assay is based on a cosubstrate conversion product cycling principle, as shown in Scheme 1.
Glutathione Peroxidase Assay Kit Item number 703102 consisted of GPx Assay Buffer (3 mL of GPx Assay Buffer was diluted with 27 mL of HPLC-grade water), GPx Sample Buffer (2 mL of Sample Buffer was diluted with 18 mL of HPLC-grade water), glutathione peroxidase-Control (10 [micro]L of glutathione peroxidase was diluted with 490 [micro]L of final Sample Buffer), GPx Cosubstrate Mixture (each vial was reconstituted with 6 mL of HPLC-grade water and mixed), and GPx Cumene Hydroperoxide.
The iron metal may be ligated with a bidentate group of cosubstrate 2OG as well as 3 side-chain residues, that is, H222, D224, and H278, which are conserved in AtANS and SbFLS (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)) [15, 25].
The enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the reduction of methylene tetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, the cosubstrate required for the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine.