The costimulatory effect
may be imparted by receptors, for example, 4-1BB , CD28 , or ICOS .
The synergetic costimulatory effect
of CD80 is very important in activating primitive T-cells, and it is a prerequisite in the activation of adaptive immune responses [12, 13].
Activation of these receptors can induce a costimulatory effect
and IL-2 secretion by T cells and IL-12 secretion by macrophages [24,25] and serves as antiapoptotic signals for macrophages under viral infection .
Kabelitz, "Direct costimulatory effect
of TLR3 ligand poly(I:C) on human yd lymphocytes," Journal of Immunology, vol.
O'Brien et al., "Expression and costimulatory effects
of the TNF receptor superfamily members CD134 (OX40) and CD137 (4-1BB), and their role in the generation of anti-tumor immune responses," European Journal of Immunology, vol.