co-stimulation

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co-stimulation

Immunology The delivery of a 2nd signal from an antigen-presenting cell to a T cell, which rescues an activated T cell from anergy, allowing it to produce the lymphokines necessary for production of additional T cells
References in periodicals archive ?
T cell costimulation molecules CD80/86 inhibit osteoclast differentiation by inducing the IDO/ tryptophan pathway.
CD28 costimulation mediates down-regulation of p27kip1 and cell cycle progression by activation of the PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in primary human T cells.
Blockade of T lymphocyte costimulation with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) reverses the cellular pathology of psoriatic plaques, including the activation of keratinocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells.
Phenotypic and functional profiling of human proinflammatory type-1 and anti-inflammatory type-2 macrophages in response to microbial antigens and IFN-gamma- and CD40L-mediated costimulation.
Regarding the colocalization, it is speculated that this coexistence in a single anatomic area could be due to localized costimulation of an immunological mechanism mediated either by helper T cells against both the melanocytes and the hair follicle antigens or polyclonal B-cell activation resulting in production of multiple autoantibodies.
2004) The linkage of innate to adaptive immunity via maturing dendritic cells in vivo requires CD40 ligation in addition to antigen presentation and CD80/86 costimulation.
escape of immune surveillance due to secretion of immunosuppressive factors (IL-10 and transforming growth factor-[sz]), lack of adequate T-cell costimulation, or downregulation of cell-surface MHC Class II protein expression (immunoediting).
Serum-free culture medium and 1L-7 costimulation increase the sensitivity of EL1Spot detection.
Maintenance immunosuppressives are classified as glucocorticoids, antimetabolites, calcineurin inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and a new category, costimulation blocker (Hardinger & Brennan, 2014).
CD28-mediated costimulation together with CD3-mediated TCR signaling induced the production of primary and secondary cytokines (Iyoda et al.