(97.) EPA's decision to style the cost-benefit
option a "compliance alternative" rather than a "variance" does not make the provisions of the Clean Water Act dealing with exceptions to technology-based standards--there styled "variances"--any less relevant.
To prevent such things happening in future, there is a need for legal provisions to ensure that no project is undertaken without a proper cost-benefit
analysis by independent subject specialists.
From 2009 to 2012, Sunstein headed the Obama administration's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA), the part of the executive branch that enforces the requirement for cost-benefit
analysis of major government regulations.
In a new book, The Cost-Benefit
Revolution, the American legal scholar Cass Sunstein applauds the gradual expansion of reliance on cost-benefit
analyses to guide regulatory policy in the United States since the 1980s.
Caption: Scott Pruitt signs the Advance Notice, likely leading to a review of the cost-benefit
factors the Agency has used to craft new regulations on emissions from vehicles and industrial sources.
This research used SP, NPV, NPVR, and IRR to study the cost-benefit
of CSP in China.
 proposed a composite decision support based on combining cost-benefit
analysis with multi-criteria decision analysis for the assessment of economic as well as strategic impacts within transport projects.
"We knew that Washington state was shaking things up and that more states could benefit from applying a cost-benefit
analysis to their programs," says Pew's Gary VanLandingham.
In 1981, President Reagan mandated by Executive Order that all administrative agencies perform cost-benefit
analysis (CBA) of all "economically significant" regulations that they issue.
The majority sided with industry supporters, who cited a single phrase in the 45-year-old Clean Air Act - that the agency can regulate pollutants only when "appropriate and necessary." By their logic, no regulation can be justified without a cost-benefit
One of the reasons OIRA was so successful in spurring the development of analytic capacity at the EPA and other executive agencies is that it collaborated with the agencies in both developing cost-benefit
methodology and in incorporating the outputs of CBA into agencies' proposed rules.
On the first question, industry groups--principally trade associations representing polluters--favored the use of cost-benefit
analysis, arguing that environmental benefits needed to be weighed against the resulting undesirable economic consequences.