tuberculosis, fungal infection, human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus) (viii) Triple A syndrome or Allgrove syndrome (alacrimia, achalasia, adrenal insufficiency) (ix) Adrenal unresponsiveness to ACTH due to gene mutations (x) Familial glucocorticoid deficiency (xi) Drug effects (mitotane, ketoconazole, aminoglutethimide, metyrapone, megestrol, rifampin) SECONDARY (CENTRAL) (i) Congenital (a) Septo-optic dysplasia (b) Pituitary aplasia/hypoplasia (c) Agenesis of corticotrophs
(d) POMC (ii) Acquired (a) Trauma (b) Brain tumor (craniopharyngioma) (c) Lymphocytic hypophysitis (d) Surgery (e) Cranial irradiation (f) Infiltrative disease (hemochromatosis, sarcoidosis, Langerhans cell histiocytosis) (g) Steroid withdrawal after prolonged administration
If circumstances are judged as stressing, the stress-related psychological state is translated into a physiological stress response by the combined effects of diverse mediators released by the autonomic nervous system (i.e., adrenergic nerves), the central (i.e., Locus coeruleus) and peripheral catecholaminergic system (i.e., chromaffin cells ofthe adrenal medulla), and the hypothalamus- (i.e., CRHergic neurons) pituitary- (i.e., corticotrophs
) adrenal cortex (HPA) axis .
Grino et al., "Differential regulation of proopiomelanocortin and pituitary-restricted transcription factor (TPIT), a new marker of normal and adenomatous human corticotrophs
," The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.
Hoyer, "Native somatostatin sst2 and sst5 receptors functionally coupled to Gi/o-protein, but not to the serum response element in AtT-20 mouse tumour corticotrophs
," Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archives of Pharmacology, vol.
They discuss methods and approaches to understanding stress processing circuitry; the role of brain monoaminergic systems in stress neuroendocrinology; the synaptic physiology of the central nervous system response to stress; the electrophysiology of anterior pituitary corticotrophs
; stress and sympathoadrenomedullary mechanisms; neuroendocrine mechanisms of stress regulation in humans; chronic stress and stress-related mood disorders in animals; glucocorticoid involvement in drug abuse and addiction; the HPA axis and circadian dysregulation and obesity; prenatal programming by glucocorticoids; early-life stress; mothering influences on offspring stress response mechanisms; and translational research in stress neuroendocrinology, and implications for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Adenohypophyseal secretory cells include somatotrophs (nearly 50%), which produce somatotropin (growth hormone, GH); corticotrophs
(15-20%), which release adrenocorticotropic hormone; gonadotrophs (10-15%), which synthesize luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone; thyrotrophs (3-5%), which release thyroid stimulating hormone; and lactotrophs (10-25%), which release prolactin (PRL) (5).
This phenomenon was confirmed in subsequent studies using V1b receptor antagonist (the specific AVP receptor found on pituitary corticotrophs
) and AVP antiserum .
The hypothalamus produces corticotropic hormone, which stimulates corticotrophs
to release ACTH, which then stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce and release cortisol and androgens.
This inadequate ACTH suppression could be due to reduced sensitivity of the corticotrophs
in the pituitary gland in which microadenoma or hyperplasia was illustrated in our case.
Cytochemical identification of human and murine pituitary corticotrophs
and somatotrophs as APUD cells.
It is possible that their hypocortisolic state is related to prolonged compression and irreversible damage to the corticotrophs
More resilient cells include corticotrophs