To smooth glabellar frown lines, botulinum toxin is injected at the procerus muscle and the corrugator supercilii
muscle, which are located with -2.0 mm peeled images (Fig.
TOF count at corrugator supercilii
reflects abdominal muscles relaxation better than at adductor pollicis.
This phenomenon was defined as premier expression, which Zhu and Suzuki (2016) studied in response to auditory surprise stimuli in the corrugator supercilii
muscle and zygomaticus major muscle.
The approach based on EMG data uses physical sensors attached to subjects to measure electrical activity of facial muscles, such as the zygomaticus, the orbicularis oculi, and the corrugator supercilii
muscles (Figure 1), associated with smiling, eyelids control, and frowning, respectively.
Similarly, when observing an angry face, one tends to activate the corrugator supercilii
muscles, which furrow the brow .
Caption: Figure 1: Anatomy of the supraorbital notch, infraorbital foramen, and mental foramen with corresponding neurovascular structures and the course of the auriculotemporal nerve: (a) 1 = supraorbital notch containing the supraorbital nerve and vessels; 2 = infraorbital foramen containing the infraorbital nerve and vessels; 3 = mental foramen containing the mental nerve and vessels; 4 = corrugator supercilii
muscle, which is superficial to the supraorbital notch; 5 = levator labii superioris muscle, which is superficial to the infraorbital foramen; 6 = depressor labii inferioris muscle, which is superficial to the mental foramen, and (b) 7 = auriculotemporal nerve; 8 = temporalis muscle; P = parotid gland.
The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii
, platysma, mentalis, and buccinator are the most preferred muscles for injection (4).
Physical examination also revealed bilateral weakness of the facial muscles including orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, frontalis, and corrugator supercilii
. Regarding the diagnostic test, cerebral magnetic resonance revealed cerebral and cerebellar atrophy which is consistent with the patient's age.
Comparison of four facial muscles, orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii
, masseter or mylohyoid, as best predictor of good conditions for intubation: a randomised blinded trial.
The aims of the present study were (i) to examine the effect of exercise intensity on EMG activity of two facial muscles and to examine whether EMG activity reflects the perception of effort as well as involved muscle activity during incremental workload cycling exercise and (ii) to determine the correlations between EMG activity of corrugator supercilii
(CS) muscle (associated with frowning), that of the masseter muscle (associated with chewing), that of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle, HR and RPE during incremental workload cycling exercise.
Also, neuromuscular monitoring of corrugator supercilii
muscle in the study could perhaps have shed additional light on timing the optimum conditions for tracheal intubation in the two study groups as current best evidence suggests that the corrugator supercilii
reflects laryngeal relaxation better than monitoring of adductor pollicis.
(4) demonstrated in a cadaver study that the superficial buccal branches of the facial nerve pass around the inferior nasal margin of the orbicularis oculi muscle and cross over the medial canthal ligament to innervate the procerus, the corrugator supercilii
, and the orbicularis oculi muscles in the nasal periorbit in 94% of the specimens.