aortic regurgitation

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regurgitation

 [re-ger″jĭ-ta´shun]
1. a backward flowing; see also backflow and reflux.
aortic regurgitation backflow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle, owing to insufficiency of the aortic valve; it may be chronic or acute.
mitral regurgitation backflow of blood from the left ventricle into the left atrium, owing to insufficiency of the mitral valve; it may be acute or chronic, and is usually due to mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease, or a complication of cardiac dilatation.
pulmonic regurgitation backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle, owing to insufficiency of the pulmonic valve.
tricuspid regurgitation backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium, owing to imperfect functioning (insufficiency) of the tricuspid valve.
valvular regurgitation backflow of blood through the orifice of one of the heart valves owing to imperfect closing of the valve (valvular insufficiency); see aortic, mitral, pulmonic, and tricuspid regurgitation.

a·or·tic re·gur·gi·ta·tion

reflux of blood through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole.
Synonym(s): Corrigan disease

aortic regurgitation

n.
The backward flow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle caused by incompetent closure of the aortic valve. Also called aortic insufficiency.

aortic insufficiency

The reflow of blood back from the aorta into the left ventricle due to incompetency of the aortic valve.
 
Clinical findings
Dyspnoea on exertion, orthopnea, fatigue, ± angina, increased pulse pressure, systolic hypertension with increased afterload on left ventricle.
 
Aetiology
Congenital or acquired valve defect of either the aortic leaflets (infectious endocarditis, rheumatic fever) or the aortic root (annuloaortic ectasia, Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, collagen vascular disease, syphilis).
 
Examination
Increased pulse pressure (Corrigan’s pulse, Hill sign, Musset sign, Quincke’s pulse), systolic murmur, diastolic rumble (Austin Flint murmur over cardiac apex).
 
Workup
Doppler echocardiography to estimate severity of AR, confirmed by aortography.
 
Management
Early valve replacement surgery, guided by the ‘55 rule’—i.e., performed when the ejection fraction is < 55% and/or the end-systolic dimension = 55 mm.

aortic regurgitation

Aortic insufficiency Cardiology The reflow of blood back from the aorta into the left ventricle due to incompetency of the aortic valve Etiology Congenital or acquired valve defect of either the aortic leaflets–infectious endocarditis, rheumatic fever, or the aortic root–annuloaortic ectasia, Marfan syndrome, aortic dissection, collagen vascular disease, syphilis Clinical DOE, orthopnea, fatigue, ± angina, ↑ pulse pressure, systolic HTN with ↑ afterload on left ventricle Examination ↑ pulse pressure–Corrigan's pulse, Hill sign, Musset sign, Quincke's pulse; systolic murmur, diastolic rumble–Austin Flint murmur over cardiac apex Workup Doppler echocardiography to estimate severity of AR, confirmed by aortography Management Early valve replacement surgery, guided by the '55 rule'–performed when the ejection fraction is < 55% and/or the end-systolic dimension is ≥ 55 mm. Cf Aortic stenosis.

a·or·tic re·gur·gi·ta·tion

(ā-ōr'tik rē-gŭr'ji-tā'shŭn)
Reflux of blood through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole.
Synonym(s): aortic insufficiency, Corrigan disease.

aortic regurgitation

Abnormal back flow of blood from the aorta through the aortic valve. In developing countries the valvular defect is mainly due to as complication of rheumatic fever; in Western countries the defect is usually congenital.

Corrigan,

Sir Dominic John, Irish pathologist and clinician, 1802-1880.
Corrigan disease - reflux of blood through an incompetent aortic valve into the left ventricle during ventricular diastole. Synonym(s): aortic regurgitation
Corrigan pulse - the collapsing or water-hammer-type pulse in aortic regurgitation or peripheral arterial dilation, characterized by an abrupt rise and rapid fall away.