backbone

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spine

 [spīn]
1. a thornlike process or projection; called also acantha and spina.
2. the rigid bony structure in the midline of the back, composed of the vertebrae; called also backbone, spinal column, and vertebral column.



The spinal column is the axis of the skeleton; the skull and limbs are in a sense appendages. The vertebrae also provide the protective bony corridor (spinal canal) through which the spinal cord passes; they can move to a certain extent and so give flexibility to the spine, allowing it to bend forward, sideways and, to a lesser extent, backward. In the areas of the neck and lower back, the spine also can pivot, which permits the turning of the head and torso.

There are usually 24 movable vertebrae and nine that are fused together. The topmost are the seven cervical vertebrae, which form the back of the neck, supporting the skull. The head turns from side to side by means of a pivotal motion between the two highest vertebrae. Below these are the 12 thoracic vertebrae, the supports on which the ribs are hinged, and then the five lumbar vertebrae, the largest movable vertebrae (the cervical are the smallest). Below the lumbar vertebrae, the spine terminates with two groups of vertebrae fused into single bones: the sacrum, composed of five vertebrae, and the coccyx, composed of four vertebrae. Viewed from the side of the body, the spine has the shape of a gentle double S curve.
Malformations of the Spine. Of the various types of spinal malformations, some are congenital and others the result of postural defects or injuries. spina bifida is congenital. kyphosis may occasionally be congenital but is more often caused by one of the diseases that attack the structure of the bones. The most common of these is pott's disease, or tuberculosis affecting the vertebrae and soft tissues of the spine. Another is osteitis deformans, a type of bone inflammation in which parts of the bone are replaced by softer tissue. scoliosis is a curvature of the spine toward one side.
cervical spine that portion of the spine comprising the cervical vertebrae.
lumbar spine that portion of the spine comprising the lumbar vertebrae.
thoracic spine that part of the spine comprising the thoracic vertebrae.

ver·te·bral col·umn

[TA]
the series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.

backbone

(băk′bōn′)
n.
1. The vertebrate spine or spinal column.
2. Chemistry The main chain of atoms in a polymer.

back′boned′ adj.

backbone

Vox populi Vertebral column, see there.

ver·te·bral col·umn

(vĕr'tĕ-brăl kol'ŭm) [TA]
The series of vertebrae that extend from the cranium to the coccyx, providing support and forming a flexible bony case for the spinal cord.
Synonym(s): columna vertebralis [TA] , backbone, rachis, spina, spinal column, spine (2) .

backbone

The vertebral column or spine.

backbone

see VERTEBRAL COLUMN.

Patient discussion about backbone

Q. Anyone have knowledge of cancer in the spine? Doctors think my 40 year old brother has. My brother has been undergoing test and treatnment for back problems since a vehicle accident in August. The did a test last week and Monday said they saw 4 nodules they think are cancer, his doctor said everytime he had seen this it was cancer. I am devestated right now but trying to stay positive. I am sure you will notice it on the site b/c I know it is affecting me and the stress and worry has the fibromyalgia kicking in at full speed:-( PLEASE anything you can tell me would be a help!

A. Thank you for the answer and the prayers!

Q. I have hurt my cervical spine and shoulder in a rear end car crash in July. Why does it still hurt?

A. Spine and back injuries are known to to be causing a lot of pain and discomfort and for a long period of time. You should try and do some mellow exercise and physiotherapy that might help you a lot. If the pain is unbarable, you should consult your doctor about using pain medications.

Q. Has anyone had a spine fusion that failed? Or hardware that failed?

A. Haven't experienced it myself, but here (http://www.spine-health.com/forum/treatments/back-surgery-and-neck-surgery) you may find a discussion about it.

More discussions about backbone
References in periodicals archive ?
Another possible contention resolution strategy can be deflection routing, when the optical burst switching matrix is sent to the next output port of a predetermined core router. This method can be applied in the cases of wavelength, time or space multiplexing [1]: deflection routing by time (TDM) is used in FDL technology to delay conflicting bursts; wavelength conversion is used to convert the conflicting burst to another wavelength in the same fiber, so that network flexibility increases, also deflection routing allows to redirect the conflicting burst to the output port of the next core router, and then the burst is transmitted towards the destination node in a different path.
Also, the selection of the 7950 XRS is the result of a recent central bidding process for IP core routers. These deployments will mark the first scale commercial use of the system in China, the company said.
What has been missing so far is a true 100G client-side core router interface, so we are encouraged to see Juniper announcing 100 GE interfaces for its T1600 routers.
The test of H3Cs advanced CR19000 cluster core router was conducted using Spirent TestCenter and the Spirent N11U chassis network performance test solution, which included the industry's highest port density and performance 100G MX3/FX3/PX3 test modules, capable of TB-level routing performance, cascaded into a set of cluster testers.
The SP core router market grew 14 percent year-over-year in the quarter as SPs continued to deploy 100 GE ports in their networks.
The T4000 Core Router, powered by the Junos operating system, provides the scalability and flexibility required to meet rapidly expanding bandwidth requirements, while extending the unprecedented investment protection of the T Series platform, the most widely deployed core routing platform in the world.
Networking company Juniper Networks Inc (Nasdaq:JNPR) introduced on Monday (8 June) the industry's first 100 Gigabit Ethernet (100 GE) router interface card, which will be delivered on the T1600 Core Router.
The International Gateway Network will provide True's subscribers with a diverse, smoother service using Huawei's 2Tbps core router platform and SDN ready solutions.
The leading IT firm has also introduced the new MLXe Core Router as part of the Brocade MLX Series of high-density routers, designed to establish industry benchmarks for performance, scalability and investment protection for service provider and data center networks.
The company has also enhanced its flagship product, the Avici TSR scalable core router. The TSR now provides 60% additional fibre management capacity, four redundant server slots and MPLS fast reroute/local protection.
Tenders are invited for Supply of network core router and internet router for grse
Huawei said it has launched a 2Tbps router line card on its NE5000E Core Router at Huawei IP GALA 2015.