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An order of abundant, free-living, freshwater and marine crustaceans of basic importance in the aquatic food chain in both the marine and freshwater environments; some species are commonly called water fleas. Some are ectoparasites of both cold-blooded and warm-blooded aquatic vertebrates; the parasitic copepods of fish and whales are often highly modified for deep penetration of the skin or for adherence by suckers and hooks (for example, the fish lice, Argulus). Certain copepods (Cyclops, Diaptomus) are important as intermediate hosts of the tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum and of the nematode Dracunculus medinensis.
[G. kōpē, an oar, + pous (pod-), a foot]
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Also, the biomass of cladocerans and copepods decreased (P = 0.002, [R.sup.2] = 0.4, [F.sub.1,16] = 13.3 and P < 0.001, [R.sup.2] = 0.3, [F.sub.1,16] = 9.3, respectively) from 1992 to 2013 (Table 2).
Copepods consume microzooplankton and phytoplankton.
The three major orders of planktonic copepods (calanoida, cyclopoida and harpacticoida) demonstrated different roles along the estuary.
Female copepods (Pleuromamnia xiphias (Giesbrecht, 1889)) were collected off the coast of Bermuda (3[GAMMA]39.93N, 64[degrees]00.14W; 31[degrees]32.00N, 63[degrees]37.02W) near the BATS site.
We then exposed groups of 5 Nile tilapia, fathead minnows, or mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) to groups of 50 copepods (Table).
Saiz & Calbet (2007) found that ingestion rates of calanoid copepods, when related to food availability, temperature and body size, can be explained in about 80% by a combination of these factors, while body size alone explains less than 10% of total variance.
This consists of killing the copepods in water (the intermediate host) by applying a chemical called temephos, an organophosphate, to unsafe drinking water sources every month during the transmission season, thus reducing vector population and reducing the chances of individuals contracting the disease [2, 6, 7].
Anchorworms: String-like copepods may attach to the skin or dorsal fin.
Keywords: Branchiura; Copepods; Crustaceans; Fish; Parasitic isopods