Using conventional explosives
and methods, only about 10 percent of the reserve can be recovered over 20 years from a 160-acre well site.
A "dirty bomb" does not require mastery of nuclear bomb production, but uses conventional explosives
together with radioactive material.
It addresses building design, development, and operations while offering improved survivability of buildings and occupants subjected to terrorist or criminal attacks involving nuclear, chemical, and biological agents or conventional explosives
In a so-called "dirty bomb", conventional explosives
are used to disperse radiation from any radioactive source, such as from hospitals and factories which are less well protected.
The RAND study found that terrorism remains a real--albeit uncertain--national security threat, with the most likely scenarios involving arson or explosives being used to damage property or conventional explosives
or firearms used to kill and injure civilians.
It could also be used to make "dirty bombs", which combine radioactive materials with conventional explosives
, and cause radiation contamination in areas around the explosion sites.
The sites include the Parchin military base where the IAEA wants to probe claims that scientists conducted tests of conventional explosives
that it says would be "strong indicators of possible nuclear weapon development".
In a dirty bomb, conventional explosives
are used to disperse radiation from a radioactive source, which can be found in hospitals or other places that are generally not very well protected.
There were no radiological implications as the blaze broke out in a part of the plant which deals with conventional explosives
, but residents near by were evacuated.
The conventional explosives
continued to go off for days after the initial blasts were over, and it took the authorities several weeks to secure the site.
Not even all weapons designers are familiar with modern security safeguards, such as conventional explosives
within a nuclear weapon that render the weapon useless if precise operating procedures are not followed.
DHS has a small office of bombing prevention and its science and technology directorate has a division dedicated to conventional explosives
research and development efforts.