clinical trial

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Related to Controlled trials: Randomized clinical trial

trial

 [tri´al, trīl]
a test or experiment.
clinical trial an experiment performed on human beings in order to evaluate the comparative efficacy of two or more therapies. See also single blind, double blind, and triple blind.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

clinical trial

a controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.

Four phases of clinical trial are distinguished. Phase I trials usually involve fewer than 100 healthy volunteers who are exposed to a new drug or procedure. Such studies seek to establish optimal dosage and route of administration and to detect adverse reactions. Phase II trials generally involve 200-500 volunteers randomly assigned to control and study groups. These are pilot efficacy studies, with emphasis on immunogenicity in the case of vaccines, and on relative efficacy and safety in the case of drugs, procedures, and devices. Phase III trials, often multicenter, involve thousands of volunteers, randomly assigned to control and study groups. The aim is to generate statistically relevant data. Phase IV trials are conducted after a national drug registration authority (in the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration) has approved an agent for distribution or sale. They may explore specific pharmacologic effects, adverse reactions, or long-term effects.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

clinical trial

n.
A research study using consenting human subjects that tests the effectiveness and safety of a treatment, a diagnostic tool, or a prophylactic intervention.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

clinical trial

A research study involving human subjects designed to answer specific questions about the safety and efficacy of a biomedical intervention (drug, treatment, device), or new ways of using a known drug, treatment or device.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

clinical trial

Clinical medical trial, clinical research trial Research A controlled study involving human subjects, designed to evaluate prospectively the safety and effectiveness of new drugs or devices or behavioral interventions. See Drug discovery, IND, Phase I, II, and III studies.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

clin·i·cal trial

(klini-kăl trīăl)
A controlled experiment involving a defined set of human subjects, having a clinical event as an outcome measure, and intended to yield scientifically valid information about the efficacy or safety of a drug, vaccine, diagnostic test, surgical procedure, or other form of medical intervention.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

clinical trial

a scientifically controlled study under specific conditions, to test, for example, the effectiveness of a drug/ treatment.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Clinical trial

All new drugs undergo clinical trials before approval. Clinical trials are carefully conducted tests in which effectiveness and side effects are studied, with the placebo effect eliminated.
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

trial, randomized controlled (RCT) 

An experimental design used for testing the effectiveness of a new medication or a new therapeutic procedure. Individuals are assigned randomly to a treatment group (experimental therapy) and a control group (placebo or standard therapy) and the outcomes are compared. The trial is strengthened by 'blinding' or masking (single-blind, double-blind or triple-blind study) and cross-over design. RCT is the most accepted scientific method of determining the benefit of a drug or a therapeutic procedure. It represents the best evidence available, which is integrated into the final decision about the management of a condition by healthcare practitioners in what is called evidence-based healthcare. Syn. randomized clinical trial. See sampling; significance; study.
Millodot: Dictionary of Optometry and Visual Science, 7th edition. © 2009 Butterworth-Heinemann
References in periodicals archive ?
Of the nine randomized controlled trials comparing routine electronic fetal heart rate monitoring with intermittent auscultation, the first eight had design problems and produced mixed results about the usefulness of monitoring.
The uncertainty (confidence limits) in the estimate of this standard deviation has been incorporated into the spreadsheet for fully controlled trials. The uncertainty is acceptable when the sample size in each group is at least 100 (see Appendix 3).
(8) The commentary on both agents notes that the size of each randomized controlled trial cited may have been too small to detect clinically important differences.
Loprinzi plans to conduct randomized, controlled trials of ginkgo biloba for the prevention of cancer chemotherapy-induced neurocognitive dysfunction.
Faris et al (4) conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that used diuretics (pertanide, furosemide, furosemide-hydrochlorothiazide) in congestive heart failure (TABLE).
In 2017, Mazidi, et al, published a systematic review and meta-analysis of 20 randomized controlled trials which indicated a that there was a significant reduction in serum CRP following probiotic administration.
Methods: We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for relevant randomized controlled trials without language limitations between 1 January 1990 and 31 July 2015 with a priori defined inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Eligibility criteria and literature search: This study was performed in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement.9 Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Aug 2016), PubMed (Jan 1980 to Aug 2016), and EMBASE (1980 to Aug 2016) databases were used to identify all studies analyzing the effectiveness of pain relievers due to HSG.
Whilst observational studies have consistently reported associations between low serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and susceptibility to ARTIs, results of randomised controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can decrease the risk of ARTIs have been conflicting.
"[Existing] epidemiological and in vitro data have prompted numerous randomized controlled trials to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can decrease the risk of acute respiratory tract infection," wrote the authors of the study, led by Adrian R.
Findings from randomized controlled trials in rural areas of south Asia with high rates of home delivery and neonatal mortality suggest that umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine solution reduces neonatal mortality; however, no research had evaluated the practice in African settings.
Although double-blinded, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are common in drug trials where inert agents can often be formulated, packaged, and presented as placebos, blinding at the participant level can be difficult or impossible in the case of basic environmental health interventions, such as improved water supplies, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) (Allen et al.

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