major promastigotes were analyzed for growth inhibition by calcimycin (0.5 [micro]M) as described in "Promastigote Growth Inhibition Assay." The effect of blocking constitutive NOS on Leishmania viability was studied by simultaneously adding selective neuronal NOS inhibitors: 50 [micro]M N[4-[2-[[(3- chlorophenyl)methyl]amino]ethyl]phenyl]-2- thiophenecarboxamide (ARL-17477) dihydrochloride (cat.
Inhibitors of Constitutive NOS Block Leishmanicidal Activity of Calcimycin.
More interestingly, NO released from constitutive NOS
activates COX-1, but iNOS selectively activates synthesis of COX-2-derived [PGE.sub.2] (Cuzzocrea and Salvemini 2007).
activity but not expression was significantly increased by in vitro exposure (72 hr) to melatonin.
Low levels of NO production typically result from constitutive NOS
(cNOS) activity, with many associated physiological actions of this molecule resulting from the activation of guanylate cyclase and that enzyme's production of cyclic GMP (13).
(1) Thus far, two forms of this enzyme have been identified: constitutive NOS (cNOS which is expressed constantly regardless of environmental conditions, and inducible (type 2) NOS (iNOS), which is expressed only as a reaction to endotoxins and inflammatory mediators.
Constitutive NOS can be classified according to its site of origin as either neuronal (type 1) NOS (nNOS) or endothelial (type 3) NOS (eNOS).
found that DEP exposure increased the level of constitutive NOS in the airway epithelium and inducible NOS in the macrophages of mice.
(1998) observed that cigarette smoke specifically affected constitutive NOS activity.
A decrease in constitutive NOS (cNOS) activity and an increase in inducible NOS (iNOS) activity were determined in gastric damaged tissues induced by IND.
NO is synthesized from L-arginine by either a [Ca.sup.2+]-dependent constitutive NOS (cNOS) or a [Ca.sup.2+]-independent inducible NOS (iNOS) (Nishida et al., 1997a, b).
The intensities of the control and shear NOS I bands are identical at 6 h, indicating that cultured hASMC express a constitutive NOS
I protein whose enzymatic activity, rather than the amount of protein, is modulated by shear stress.