biostratigraphy and depositional environment of the Middle Devonian (Givetian) to Early Carboniferous (Tournaisian) Lipak Formation in the Pin Valley (NW India).
and fish remains from the Stonehouse Formation, Arisaig, Nova Scotia.
However, recent faunal studies, especially on conodonts
, suggest the extinction event transcends the formational boundaries, and place the Permian-Triassic boundary within the basal or middle part of the Kathwai Member of the Mianwali Formation (see Pakistani-Japanese Research Group,1985; Wardlawand Mei, 1999).
Species affected: Marine organisms like conodonts
and trilobites (above)
, Bucktown Coal Member, Dugger Formation, Pennsylvanian
This biozone's age, according to conodonts
, was Guadalupian.
In other words, the observed Ce anomaly is not limited to marine carbonate, conodonts
and ichthyoliths, while the whole-rock Ce anomaly can be used as an indicator of intensity of anoxia and therefore of eustatic sea-level.
Several marine fossils not found in underlying formations suddenly appear here, including those of gastropods; crinoids; rare corals; small conodonts
(eel-like creatures); and armored, plate-mouthed fish known as placoderms.
The age of the Buchans Group is based on Whiterockian conodonts
recovered from carbonate clasts (Nowlan and Thurlow 1984, 1987) and U-Pb zircon ages (462 [+ or -] 3 and 465 [+ or -] 3 Ma) from the upper part of the unit (Zagorevski et al.
Until 1973, geologists assumed that the Stari Trg Series sedimentary sequence was Silurian-Ordovician, but in that year Yugoslavian geologists found fossils (conodonts
) in the sequence which suggest that some of the limestones could be of Triassic age (Topalovic, personal communication, 1973).
The presence of conodonts
was mentioned by Bergstrom (1971).