congenital rubella syndrome

(redirected from Congenital rubella)

rubella

 [roo-bel´ah]
a mild systemic disease caused by a virus and characterized by a fever and a transient rash. It is not as contagious as chickenpox or measles, but there are frequent epidemics among schoolchildren, usually during the spring and early summer. The virus is spread by direct contact and by droplet infection. Rubella begins with a slight cold, fever, and sore throat. The lymph nodes behind the ears and at the back of the neck may swell, causing soreness or pain when the head is moved. The rash appears first on the face and scalp, and spreads to the body and arms the same day; it is similar to the rash of measles, although the spots usually do not run together. It fades after 2 or 3 days, although in a few cases the disease may last as long as a week. Called also German measles and three-day measles

If a pregnant woman contracts rubella, especially during the first trimester, the virus can damage the developing offspring. The location and extent of the resulting congenital anomaly are determined in large part by the developmental stage of the embryo at the time of the attack. Congenital heart defects, cataracts, mental retardation, and deafness are some of the more common defects resulting from maternal rubella.
Treatment and Prevention. Except for complications that may result if the disease is contracted during pregnancy, other complications are rare. No special treatment, medicine, or diet is necessary unless the patient has a high fever. One attack usually gives lifetime immunity to the disease, although a second attack does occasionally occur. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends two doses of rubella vaccine for all children, given as combination measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, with doses at least four weeks apart. The first dose should be given when the child is 12 months old. Vaccine is also recommended for susceptible nonpregnant adolescents and adults who do not have rubella immunity.
Congenital rubella syndrome is marked by a triad that includes microcephaly, microphthalmia, and congenital heart disease. From Damjanov, 2000.
congenital rubella syndrome (rubella syndrome) transplacental infection of the fetus with rubella usually in the first trimester of pregnancy, as a consequence of maternal infection (which may or may not be clinically apparent), resulting in various developmental abnormalities in the newborn infant. They include cardiac and ocular lesions, deafness, microcephaly, mental retardation, and generalized growth retardation, which may be associated with acute self-limited conditions such as thrombocytopenic purpura, anemia, hepatitis, encephalitis, and radiolucencies of long bones. Infected infants may shed the virus to all contacts for extended periods of time.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

con·gen·i·tal ru·bel·la syn·drome

fetal infection with rubella virus during the first trimester of pregnancy resulting in a series of congenital abnormalities including heart disease, deafness, and blindness.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

congenital rubella syndrome

A malformation complex in a fetus infected in utero with rubella; the defects reflect the embryologic stage at the time of infection, with developmental arrest affecting all 3 embryonal layers, inhibiting mitosis, causing delayed and defective organogenesis; maternal infection in the 1st 8 wks of pregnancy causes embryopathy in 50-70% of fetuses; the susceptible period extends to ±20th wk; infection in late pregnancy carries little fetal morbidity Clinical Cardiac defects–eg PDA, pulmonary valve stenosis, VSD, hepatosplenomegaly, interstitial pneumonia, LBW, congenital cataracts, deafness, microcephaly, petechia, purpura, CNS Sx–eg, mental retardation, lethargy, irritability, dystonia, bulging fontanelles, ataxia Lab Viral isolation, IgM antibodies in fetus by hemagglutination inhibition Vaccination Attenuated live virus vaccine between 15 months and puberty; effective antibodies develop after immunization in 95% of Pts. See Extended rubella syndrome.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
It is a self-limiting disease but can cause severe consequences when pregnant women are infected, particularly in the first trimester.1 Maternal rubella infection affects all organs of the emergent foetus and leads to Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) resulting in stillbirth, abortion, miscarriage, combination of birth defects, blindness, deafness, mental retardation and heart diseases.2
We requested reimbursement data for health services received by the 27 identified congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases from birth up to the date of data collection (at which point the surviving 15 CRS case-patients were 3-4 years old) from the National Health Insurance House; we obtained records for 18 (11 surviving and 7 who had died) of the 27 case-patients.
And in my younger days of my medical career, I saw many people with complications of congenital rubella, which is a sad burden of disability and expense to society.
WHO estimates that more than 100,000 children are born with CRS (congenital Rubella syndrome) every year.
Rubella a viral infectious human disease is transmitted either through large aerosol droplets from person to person or through placenta congenital rubella syndrome with an incubation period of 14 days.
Rubella infection in pregnancy can result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which is characterized by low birthweight and birth defects including deafness, cataracts, heart defects, and intellectual disabilities (1).
Strebel, "Global progress toward rubella and congenital rubella syndrome control and elimination-2000-2014," The Weekly Epidemiological Record, vol.
In all, five vaccine-preventable diseases have been eliminated in the region, according to PAHO: smallpox in 1971, polio in 1994, and rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in 2015.
(2) In congenital rubella, a history of maternal infection will be present.
During an April meeting of the International Expert Committee for Measles and Rubella Elimination in the Americas, members concluded that there was no evidence of endemic transmission of rubella or congenital rubella syndrome for five consecutive years, exceeding the typical three-year requirement for designating a disease as eliminated.
(1) In pregnant women, primary infection with the virus may cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), often accompanied by miscarriage, stillbirth and/or birth defects in infants.

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