In this case, the effect of the confounding variables
C (t) on exposure A (t) differs over time t; in the case of Figure 1e, there is a direct causal effect of C (0) on A (0), but there is no direct causal effect of C (1) on A (1).
The patient-centered communication scores (based on the audiotape analysis) were not significantly related to any of the health outcomes after adjusting for the clustering of patients within practices and after controlling for the 2 confounding variables
. Similarly, patient-centered communication scores were not related to any of the 3 medical care outcomes.
Finally, the correlation must be free of confounding variables
. The decrease had a P value of 0.002.
The caution to the healthcare researcher and others is to realize that such confounding variables
may be present when data sets are combined, requiring further reflection by the researcher.
The Penn study has examined data from more than three times as many geographic areas as earlier research and has controlled for numerous potential confounding variables
previously unaddressed or only partially addressed.
The literature describing the association between stress-related conditions, including PTSD, with preterm birth (PTB), has been inconsistent and limited with regard to power, assessment of the burden of symptoms, and confounding variables
including psychiatric comorbidity and psychotropic medications that also have been linked with PTB.
Ordinal (for GOSE and FIM scores) and logistic (for discharge location) regressions were used for predictions while controlling for the following confounding variables
: age, year of accident, GCS score, ISS score, primary language, leaving against medical advice, and mechanism of accident.
Second, key changes in immunity will be reviewed, keeping a perspective of the impact of confounding variables
in addition to age but focusing on age-related changes in the interaction of the innate and acquired components of immunity.
Demographic factors associated with stillbirth, after adjusting for confounding variables
, were unbooked status, low maternal education, vaginal delivery and maternal co-morbidity.
Results: The program modality was not a significant predictor of overall satisfaction with a program once we controlled for the confounding variables
, including age, program area, and presence of visual impairments (-.277 -.226, 95% CI).
no-go) and five ERPs (N2, P3, error-related negativity, error positivity, and correct response positivity) after controlling for confounding variables
. The results suggest that Pb exposure during childhood impaired the child's ability to allocate the cognitive resources needed to correctly inhibit a prepotent response, resulting in increased impulsivity, whereas postnatal PCB exposure appeared to affect processes associated with error monitoring, an aspect of behavioral regulation required to adequately adapt to the changing demands of the environment, which results in reduced task efficiency.
"They failed to consistently measure history of violence or to control for relevant confounding variables
such as psychopathy, childhood trauma, and substance abuse."